Family:
Fabaceae Lindl.

Inga Mill.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America.

[LOWO]

Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

Note

Nielsen (1981a) recognised 21 genera in Ingeae (Table 7), although 4 were not given generic names, but were referred to as ‘Gen. A’ to ‘Gen. D’. He recognised the genus Marmaroxylon, although without a generic number, so that the tribe, to the casual observer, appeared to contain only 20 genera. The genus Punjuba appended by Nielsen (1981a) under “genera and species of unknown affinity” is here treated as a synonym of Abarema, following Barneby & Grimes (1996), although we suggest that this may be reinstated as a good genus in the future. Nielsen (1981a) also included Pithecellobium incuriale (Vell.) Benth. as a “species of unknown affinity” but this is now placed in Leucochloron Barneby & Grimes (1996).

Polhill (1994) increased the number of genera of Ingeae to 25 (Table 7). He recognised Nielsen’s ‘Gen. A’ as Paraserianthes I.C.Nielsen, ‘Gen. B’ as Archidendropsis I.C.Nielsen, ‘Gen. C’ as Pararchidendron I.C.Nielsen, and ‘Gen. D’ as Macrosamanea Britton & Rose ex Britton & Killip. He placed Faidherbia in Ingeae for the first time, reinstated Cathormion, Samanea and Chloroleucon, and recognised the monospecific Obolinga Barneby (subsequently subsumed into Cojoba by Barneby & Grimes, 1997). Zapoteca, a segregate of Calliandra described by Hernández (1986), was also added by Polhill (1994). Klugiodendron, recognised by Nielsen (1981a), was considered a synonym of Abarema by Polhill (1994), and Affonsea was placed as a synonym of Inga, a position later confirmed by Pennington (1997).

The present treatment of Ingeae recognises 36 genera (24 of which are New World endemics) and (935)–951–(966) species (Fig. 27). We follow Barneby & Grimes (1997) in placing Obolinga as a synonym of Cojoba. Eight genera: Blanchetiodendron, Ebenopsis, Hesperalbizia, Hydrochorea, Leucochloron, Painteria, Pseudosamanea, and Sphinga, have either been reinstated or described as new since 1994 (Barneby & Grimes, 1996). Paraserianthes section Falcataria was raised to generic status as Falcataria (I.C.Nielsen) Barneby & Grimes (1996). Balizia Barneby & Grimes (1996) is considered a synonym of Albizia following Rico Arce (1999). Guinetia L.Rico & M.Sousa was described as new (Rico Arce et al., 1999, publ. 2000), and Viguieranthus Villiers in 2002.

Clarification of generic relationships within tribe Ingeae still suffers from a paucity of molecular data, partly due to a lack of appropriate material for DNA extraction of the recently described and reinstated genera. Luckow et al. (2000) included four ingoid genera in their analysis of the basal genera of Mimosoideae. These formed a group together with Faidherbia (then still considered a member of tribe Acacieae, although moved to Ingeae by Polhill (1994)). Barneby & Grimes (1996) concentrating on neotropical taxa, divided American ingoids into five informal alliances: the Abarema-, Samanea-, Chloroleucon-, Pithecellobium- and Inga- alliances. Genera of uncertain position within their system included Albizia, Enterolobium and Cedrelinga. Lysiloma was considered as intermediate between tribes Ingeae and Acacieae. Luckow et al. (2003) carried out a phylogenetic analysis of the Mimosoideae using chloroplast DNA sequence data. They treated sixteen of the 36 ingoid genera recognised in this account, including Faidherbia, but concluded that relationships within the Ingeae are generally unresolved and that, with only a few exceptions, clades within the ingoid part of their topology were not strongly supported. Albizia proved to be polyphyletic, supporting the findings of Grimes (1999).

Any new classification of the Ingeae will require sampling of all the genera not included by Luckow et al. (2003) and more extensive sampling of the larger and putatively non-monophyletic genera. Relationships between ingoid genera and the various elements of a polyphyletic Acacia have still to be resolved, although Luckow et al. (2003) have an Acacia subgenus Phyllodineae clade nested within the Ingeae, suggesting that at least part of Acacia sens. lat. (the Australian phyllodinous acacias) might be included within the Ingeae in the future, or that the Ingeae, as currently circumscribed, may have to be broken up into several distinct suprageneric taxa. Such suggestions are premature as 20 ingoid genera, including Abarema, Archidendron, Pithecellobium, Zygia and the largely Madagascan Viguieranthus have not yet been included in molecular analyses.

Richardson et al. (2001), based on DNA sequence data, indicate that Inga has diversified relatively recently, and that speciation has been concentrated in the past 10 million years, with many species arising as recently as 2 million years ago. All Inga species have simply pinnate (not bipinnate) leaves; in the Mimosoideae, Zygia (1 sp.) and Cojoba (a few spp.) are the only other genera with some species simply pinnate
Vernacular
ingá
Habit
Trees
Ecology
Mostly of lowland and montane rain forest throughout the humid tropics, 0-3000 m, half in rain forest on non-flooded land, half in riparian habitats on periodically flooded land, rarely in seasonally dry areas
Distribution
Neotropics from 24°N in Mexico to 34°S in Uruguay, including 2 spp. restricted to the Caribbean, highest diversity in Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and southern C America. 40 spp. confined to Mexico and southern C America, 75 spp. essentially Amazonian, 33 spp. restricted to coastal Brazil, c. 60 spp. extra-Amazonian within an arc from the Guianas through Colombia to Peru and Bolivia, the remaining spp. (c. 40-45) extending across the Panama isthmus (several of these widespread especially in S America)

[LOWO]
Use
Used as multi-purpose soil restoration and agroforestry trees (e.g., I. edulis Mart., or ice cream bean, guava machete, ingá cipa ), for edible fruits (the white pulp is eaten or used in flavouring desserts), shade for crops, leaf mulch, nitrogen fixing properties, timber, fuelwood and medicine

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Galápagos, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Angola, Chile North, Cook Is., Gabon, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, Jawa, Malaya, Marquesas, New Caledonia, Nigeria, Society Is., Tanzania, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Zaïre

Inga Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2006 Delprete, P.G. [9031], Brazil K000877304 Yes
Jan 1, 2002 Jardim, J.G. [1521], Brazil K000877271 Yes
Jan 1, 1997 Acevedo-Rodriguez, P. [8418], Brazil K000877275 Yes
Jan 1, 1996 Cid Ferreira, C.A. [5740], Brazil K000877263 Yes
Jan 1, 1996 Garcia, F.C.P. [737], Brazil K000877243 Yes
Jan 1, 1996 Campbell, D.G. [7623], Brazil K000877254 Yes
Jan 1, 1996 Thomas, W.W. [3954], Brazil K000877241 Yes
Jan 1, 1996 s.coll. [s.n.], Venezuela K000877284 Yes
Jan 1, 1996 Cid Ferreira, C.A. [8303], Brazil K000877251 Yes
Jan 1, 1996 Ferreira, A.R. [s.n.] K000877283 Yes
Jan 1, 1996 Glaziou [14643], Brazil K000877278 Yes
Jan 1, 1996 Vicentini, A. [532], Brazil K000877295 Yes
Jan 1, 1996 Campbell, D.G. [8055], Brazil K000877294 Yes
Jan 1, 1996 Glaziou [11917], Brazil K000877281 Yes
Jan 1, 1996 Campbell, D.G. [P22093], Brazil K000877302 Yes
Jan 1, 1996 Prance, G.T. [7161], Brazil K000877286 Yes
Jan 1, 1996 Prance, G.T. [4575], Brazil K000877279 Yes
Jan 1, 1996 Cid Ferreira, C.A. [4826], Brazil K000877267 Yes
Jan 1, 1996 Prance, G.T. [13528], Brazil K000877253 Yes
Jan 1, 1996 Thomas, W.W. [5129], Brazil K000877280 Yes
Jan 1, 1996 Burchell [3695], Brazil K000877289 Yes
Mar 1, 1990 Rabelo, B.V. [2241], Brazil K000877282 Yes
Mar 1, 1990 Cid Ferreira, C.A. [5831], Brazil K000877300 Yes
Mar 1, 1990 Thomas, W.W. [5056], Brazil K000877285 Yes
Mar 1, 1990 Cid Ferreira, C.A. [4860], Brazil K000877303 Yes
Feb 1, 1990 Cid Ferreira, C.A. [7411], Brazil K000877287 Yes
Sep 1, 1988 Cid Ferreira, C.A. [6025], Brazil K000877266 Yes
Jan 1, 1988 Thomas, W.W. [4960], Brazil K000877264 Yes
Jul 1, 1985 Rabelo, B.V. [3169], Brazil K000877291 Yes
Jan 1, 1984 Amaral, I.L. [8343], Brazil K000877252 Yes
Pennington, T.D. [12353], Peru 29047.681 No
Pennington, T.D. [13295], Bolivia 29047.725 No
Pennington, T.D. [13371], Costa Rica 29047.727 No
Pennington, T.D. [13399], Honduras 29047.733 No
Pennington, T.D. [13487], Bolivia 29047.748 No
Pennington, T.D. [13493], Bolivia 29047.749 No
Pennington, T.D. [13512], Bolivia 29047.752 No
Pennington, T.D. [13447], Bolivia 29047.753 No
Pennington, T.D. [13525], Bolivia 29047.754 No
Pennington, T.D. [13503], Bolivia 29047.756 No
Pennington, T.D. [13542], Ecuador 29047.803 No
Pennington, T.D. [13764], Ecuador 29047.808 No
Pennington, T.D. [13541], Ecuador 29047.809 No
Pennington, T.D. [13894], Ecuador 29047.875 No
Pennington, T.D. [13878], Ecuador 29047.882 No
Pennington, R.T. [91], Bolivia 35772.030 No
Pennington, R.T. [174], Bolivia 35772.031 No
Pennington, R.T. [151], Bolivia 36688.000 No
Pennington, R.T. [39], Bolivia 53791.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12518], Peru 53847.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12448], Peru 54399.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12396], Peru 54400.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12394], Peru 54403.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12441], Peru 54405.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12377], Peru 54409.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12341], Peru 54410.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12361], Peru 54411.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12454], Peru 54432.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12472], Peru 54441.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12496], Peru 54674.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12500], Peru 54675.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12542], Peru 55617.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12470], Peru 55620.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12522], Peru 55621.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12547], Peru 55668.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12553], Peru 55670.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12541], Peru 55672.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12526], Peru 55679.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12507], Peru 55744.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12495], Peru 55746.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12472], Peru 55749.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12490], Peru 55764.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12485], Peru 55768.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12522], Peru 55769.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12519], Peru 55770.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12496], Peru 55778.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12483], Peru 55781.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12504], Peru 55782.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [12462], Peru 55789.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13286], Bolivia 56015.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13494], Bolivia 56151.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13439], Bolivia 56152.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13517], Bolivia 56153.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13497], Bolivia 56156.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13445], Bolivia 56564.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13444], Bolivia 56565.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13494], Bolivia 57258.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13502], Bolivia 57324.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13492], Bolivia 57326.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13256], Bolivia 57332.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13289], Bolivia 57333.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13294], Bolivia 57334.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13244], Bolivia 57335.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13298], Bolivia 57337.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13263], Bolivia 57338.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13240], Bolivia 57341.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13246], Bolivia 57342.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13310], Bolivia 57343.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13250], Bolivia 57344.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13312], Bolivia 57345.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13275], Bolivia 57346.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13254], Bolivia 57347.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13264], Bolivia 57348.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13245], Bolivia 57349.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13316], Bolivia 57350.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13251], Bolivia 57357.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13406], Honduras 57359.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13281], Bolivia 57402.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13313], Bolivia 57403.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13249], Bolivia 57404.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13247], Bolivia 57405.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13228], Bolivia 57406.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13290], Bolivia 57407.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13265], Bolivia 57408.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13297], Bolivia 57409.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13315], Bolivia 57411.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13226], Bolivia 57412.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13300], Bolivia 57413.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13301], Bolivia 57414.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13241], Bolivia 57415.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13305], Bolivia 57416.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13235], Bolivia 57417.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13288], Bolivia 57418.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13299], Bolivia 57419.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13269], Bolivia 57420.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13293], Bolivia 57421.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13267], Bolivia 57422.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13327], Bolivia 57423.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13238], Bolivia 57424.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13307], Bolivia 57425.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13278], Bolivia 57428.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13302], Bolivia 57429.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13232], Bolivia 57430.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13287], Bolivia 57431.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13227], Bolivia 57432.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13308], Bolivia 57433.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13314], Bolivia 57434.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13279], Bolivia 57435.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13282], Bolivia 57436.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13326], Bolivia 57437.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13284], Bolivia 57438.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13270], Bolivia 57439.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13237], Bolivia 57440.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13328], Bolivia 57441.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13280], Bolivia 57442.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13292], Bolivia 57443.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13285], Bolivia 57444.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13317], Bolivia 57445.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13318], Bolivia 57446.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13291], Bolivia 57447.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13236], Bolivia 57448.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13277], Bolivia 57449.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13283], Bolivia 57450.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13398], Honduras 57475.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13423], Guatemala 57482.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13410], Honduras 57490.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13407], Honduras 57491.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13408], Honduras 57494.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13437], Guatemala 57495.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13440], Bolivia 57550.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13505], Bolivia 57551.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13521], Bolivia 57559.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13441], Bolivia 57563.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13453], Bolivia 57564.000 No
Pennington, R.T. [105], Bolivia 57588.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13519], Bolivia 57598.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13442], Bolivia 57599.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13522], Bolivia 57601.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13628], Costa Rica 57651.000 No
Cardeil, J.M. [119], Bolivia 57677.000 No
Owen, P.E. [18], Costa Rica 58681.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13602], Costa Rica 58683.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13609], Costa Rica 58684.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13603], Costa Rica 58690.000 No
Owen, P.E. [13], Costa Rica 58692.000 No
Owen, P.E. [17], Costa Rica 58698.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13650], Honduras 58711.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13440], Bolivia 58790.000 No
Spironelo, W.R. [A54-1], Brazil 59111.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13822], Ecuador 59201.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13234], Bolivia 59203.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13793], Ecuador 59206.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13742], Ecuador 59218.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13807], Ecuador 59220.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13878], Ecuador 59602.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13505], Bolivia 59912.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13512], Bolivia 59913.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13521], Bolivia 62803.000 No
Forzza, R.C. [4785], Brazil K000944310 Yes
Silva, D.G. [30], Brazil K000877262 Yes
Faria, S.M. [1134], Brazil K000944308 Yes
Borges, R.A.X. [194], Brazil K000944311 Yes
Milliken, W. [461], Brazil K000877288 Yes
Oliveira, A.R.S. [580], Brazil K000877248 Yes
Cunha, N.M.L. [131], Brazil K000877293 Yes
Figuereido, C. [509], Brazil K000877296 Yes
Silva, D.G. [17], Brazil K000877265 Yes
Paula-Souza, J. [5001], Brazil K000877299 Yes
Martínez S., E.M. [26269], Mexico K000564139 No
Daly, D.C. [10397], Brazil K000877259 Yes
Krukoff, B.A. [8228], Brazil K000877260 Yes
Stehmann, J.R. [3081], Brazil K000877270 Yes
Ribeiro, J.E.L.S. [1314], Brazil K000877244 Yes
Cid Ferreira, C.A. [1930], Brazil K000877242 Yes
Lima, H.C. [1828], Brazil K000944306 Yes
Rosário, C.S. [778], Brazil K000877257 Yes
Filgueiras, T.S. [3585], Brazil K000877305 Yes
Daly, D.C. [9332], Brazil K000877246 Yes
Silveira, M. [1447], Brazil K000877245 Yes
Krukoff, B.A. [7114], Brazil K000877274 Yes
Assunção, P.A.C.L. [477], Brazil K000877272 Yes
Silva, M.G. [4298], Brazil K000877301 Yes
Krukoff, B.A. [8228], Brazil K000877261 Yes
Figueiredo, C. [736], Brazil K000877297 Yes
Hatschbach, G.G. [66655], Brazil K000877249 Yes
Folli, D.A. [6332], Brazil K000877268 Yes
Lindeman, J.C. [1765], Brazil K000877276 Yes
Lima, H.C. [1830], Brazil K000944307 Yes
Tameirão Neto, E. [1959], Brazil K000877255 Yes
Forzza, R.C. [4559], Brazil K000944309 Yes
Oliveira, A.R.S. [182], Brazil K000877247 Yes
Philcox, D. [3054], Brazil K000877277 Yes
Spironelo, W. [186], Brazil K000877250 Yes
Atkins, S. [4649], Brazil K000877298 Yes
Prance, G.T. [5315], Brazil K000877292 Yes
Martínez S., E.M. [26284], Mexico K000564138 No
Figueiredo, C. [1114], Brazil K000877290 Yes
Hatschbach, G.G. [49873], Brazil K000877256 Yes
Silva, D.G. [28], Brazil K000877258 Yes
Folli, D.A. [6332], Brazil K000877269 Yes
Silveira, M. [1539], Brazil K000877273 Yes

First published in Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4: s.p. (1754)

Accepted by

  • Pennington, T.D. (1997). The genus Inga botany: 1-488. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Legumes of the World Online

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0