Saccharum L.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Central & E. Asia to Tropics & Subtropics.

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Perennials, often tall; culms solid
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades linear; ligule scarious or a line of hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence large, plumose, often silvery, with many racemes crowded upon the primary panicle-branches; racemes usually flexuous, the rhachis fragile and bearing paired similar spikelets, one sessile, the other pedicelled; internodes linear, slender, usually more than 1/2 the length of the sessile spikelet
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets lanceolate, enveloped in long silky hairs from the callus; callus very short, truncate; glumes equal, membranous or sometimes sub-coriaceous below, the lower flat or rounded on the back; lower floret reduced to a lemma, this lanceolate, shorter than the spikelet, hyaline; upper floret hermaphrodite; lemma lanceolate, hyaline, awnless or with a straight awn, entire or rarely bilobed, sometimes reduced to a subulate vestige; stamens 2–3
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis subglobose to narrowly oblong.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Rhizomes absent (25), or short (7), or elongated (4). Culms erect (34/35), or geniculately ascending (1/35), or rambling (1/35); robust (25/25); 0-221.6-1000 cm long; firm (34), or woody (2). Culm-internodes terete (2/2). Culm-nodes flush with internodes (1/2), or swollen (2/2). Lateral branches lacking (4/4). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (35), or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (17), or a ciliolate membrane (14), or a ciliate membrane (4), or a fringe of hairs (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (35), or with a false petiole (1). Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (33), or lanceolate (3); herbaceous (35), or coriaceous (1); stiff (5), or firm (31). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (5/10), or widened (5/10). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme; exserted (35), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2). Panicle open (33/34), or contracted (1/34). Primary panicle branches not whorled (32), or whorled at lower nodes (1), or whorled at most nodes (3). Racemes bearing few fertile spikelets (3), or many spikelets (33); 2 fertile spikelets on each (1/4), or 4-6 fertile spikelets on each (1/4), or 7-8 fertile spikelets on each (2/4), or 9 fertile spikelets on each (1/4), or 10-17 fertile spikelets on each (2/4), or 18-30 fertile spikelets on each (1/4). Rhachis fragile at the nodes; angular (1), or subterete (35). Rhachis internodes filiform (15), or linear (20), or clavate (1). Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile (3), or sessile and pedicelled (34); 1 in the cluster (3), or 2 in the cluster (34); subequal (33/33), or the upper smaller (1/33). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled (3/3); 0 in the cluster (1/3), or 1 in the cluster (3/3). Pedicels filiform (15), or linear (20), or clavate (1); tip widened (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Companion sterile spikelets absent (33), or rudimentary (2), or well-developed (3). Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (29), or elliptic (4), or oblong (5), or ovate (1); dorsally compressed; 2-5.043-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base (34), or with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (35), or square (1); glabrous (1), or pubescent (1), or pilose (3), or bearded (32); base truncate (35), or obtuse (1); inserted (1/1).
Sterile
Companion sterile spikelets absent (33), or rudimentary (2), or well-developed (3).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (29), or elliptic (4), or oblong (5), or ovate (1); dorsally compressed; 2-5.043-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base (34), or with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (35), or square (1); glabrous (1), or pubescent (1), or pilose (3), or bearded (32); base truncate (35), or obtuse (1); inserted (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes reaching apex of florets (6/11), or exceeding apex of florets (5/11); firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (27), or elliptic (3), or oblong (7), or ovate (1); membranous (12), or chartaceous (10), or cartilaginous (6), or coriaceous (8); without keels (4), or 2-keeled (32); 1 -veined (2/19), or 2 -veined (7/19), or 3 -veined (5/19), or 4 -veined (6/19), or 5 -veined (7/19), or 6 -veined (1/19), or 7 -veined (2/19), or 9-11 -veined (1/19). Lower glume lateral veins absent (1), or obscure (1), or distinct (35); without ribs (35), or ribbed (1). Lower glume surface convex (8), or flat (28); smooth (33), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (2); glabrous (18), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (4), or pilose (11), or hirsute (4), or villous (6). Lower glume apex entire (34), or dentate (3); 2 -fid (3/3); emarginate (4/32), or truncate (3/32), or obtuse (4/32), or acute (9/32), or acuminate (16/32). Upper glume lanceolate (33), or elliptic (1), or oblong (2); membranous (13), or chartaceous (10), or cartilaginous (4), or coriaceous (9); without keels (20), or 1-keeled (16); 1 -veined (14/28), or 2 -veined (2/28), or 3 -veined (11/28), or 5 -veined (2/28), or 7 -veined (3/28). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (35), or ciliate (2). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (23/24), or ribbed (1/24). Upper glume surface smooth (34), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (1); glabrous (29), or pubescent (1), or pilose (9), or hirsute (3), or villous (2). Upper glume apex truncate (2/35), or obtuse (1/35), or acute (29/35), or acuminate (2/35), or setaceously attenuate (1/35), or caudate (1/35); muticous (34), or mucronate (1), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; with palea (1), or without significant palea (35). Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (2), or lanceolate (27), or elliptic (3), or oblong (4), or ovate (1); hyaline (35), or membranous (1); 0 -veined (9/18), or 1 -veined (4/18), or 2 -veined (3/18), or 3 -veined (5/18); truncate (1/34), or obtuse (2/34), or acute (31/34); muticous (35), or mucronate (2). Fertile lemma linear (18/35), or lanceolate (15/35), or elliptic (1/35), or oblong (6/35), or ovate (1/35); hyaline (35/35); 0 -veined (5/18), or 1 -veined (6/18), or 3 -veined (7/18). Lemma surface glabrous (34/35), or pubescent (1/35). Lemma margins eciliate (25/35), or ciliolate (6/35), or ciliate (5/35). Lemma apex entire (24/35), or dentate (6/35), or lobed (6/35); 2 -fid (11/11); incised 0.2-0.3517-0.5 of lemma length; acute (6/6); muticous (10/35), or mucronate (1/35), or awned (27/35); 1 -awned (25/25). Principal lemma awn apical (17/28), or from a sinus (11/28); straight (17/28), or curved (4/28), or flexuous (3/28), or geniculate (6/28). Palea present (16), or absent or minute (20); 0.15-0.875-3 length of lemma; hyaline (8/16), or membranous (8/16). Palea keels eciliate (15/16), or ciliolate (1/16). Palea surface glabrous (14/16), or pilose (2/16).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2 (26/26); glabrous (12/26), or ciliate (14/26). Anthers 2 (2/33), or 3 (31/33).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (2/2); oblong (2/2); isodiametric (1/1). Embryo 0.15 length of caryopsis.
Distribution
Europe (4), or Africa (9), or Temperate Asia (17), or Tropical Asia (21), or Australasia (2), or Pacific (4), or North America (8), or South America (6).

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Tufted or rhizomatous perennials; leaves linear; ligule scarious or a line of hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle, often large and plumose, bearing numerous racemes crowded on its branches; racemes with fragile rhachis, bearing paired similar spikelets, one sessile, the other pedicelled; internodes linear, slender
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets lanceolate, enveloped in long silky hairs from the callus, dorsally compressed; callus very short, truncate; glumes equal, membranous to coriaceous, the lower flat or rounded on the back, ± 2-keeled; lower floret barren, reduced to a lemma; upper lemma lanceolate, hyaline, awnless or with a straight awn, entire or rarely 2-toothed, sometimes almost suppressed; stamens 2–3
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis subglobose to narrowly oblong.
Distribution
35–40 species throughout the tropics and subtropics.

[FZ]

Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

Morphology General Habit
Inflorescence a panicle, often large and plumose, bearing numerous racemes on its branches; racemes loose, fragile, with slender internodes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets alike, paired, one sessile, one pedicelled, lanceolate, enveloped in long silky hairs from the callus.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Inferior glume membranous or sometimes subcoriaceous below, flat or rounded on the back.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Inferior floret represented by a short hyaline lemma.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Superior lemma entire or bidentate, awned or awnless, sometimes almost suppressed; stamens 2–3.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Algeria, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Ghana, Gulf States, Hainan, India, Iran, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Marquesas, Morocco, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Paraguay, Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sinai, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Xinjiang, Yemen

Introduced into:

Alabama, Aldabra, Angola, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil West-Central, Burundi, Canary Is., Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Christmas I., Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Florida, Galápagos, Gambia, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kriti, Leeward Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Maldives, Marianas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Nauru, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Niue, Panamá, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Santa Cruz Is., Sardegna, Senegal, Spain, Sulawesi, Texas, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Turkey, Tuvalu, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Zaïre

Saccharum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8854], Bangladesh K001128366 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8854], India K001128370 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8854], Nepal K001128374 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8855], Bangladesh K001128380 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8854] K001128365 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8854], Myanmar K001128377 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8856], India K001128383 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8854], India K001128372 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8854], India K001128369 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8855], India K001128381 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8853], India K001128361 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8853], India K001128362 Yes
Singh, B. [Cat. no. 8856], Nepal K001128386 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8853] K001128359 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8854], India K001128371 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8853] K001128360 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8855] K001128379 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8854] K001128378 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8852] K001128358 Yes
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8854] K001128375 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8853], India K001128363 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8854] K001128364 Yes
Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [3686], Brazil K001106146 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8855], India K001128382 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8854], India K001128367 Yes
Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [5089], Brazil K001106147 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8854], Myanmar K001128376 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8856], India K001128385 Yes
Hoehne, W. [s.n.], Brazil K001106145 Yes
Tweedie [s.n.], Brazil K001106144 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8852] K001128357 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8856], India K001128384 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8854], India K001128368 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 54 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • F.T.A. 9: 94 (1917).
  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 28 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl. 54 (1753)

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Sp. Pl. 1: 54 (1753).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by T. A. Cope [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 28 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 54 (1753)

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0