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This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe to Japan and Malesian Mountains, Macaronesia, NW. & Tropical Montane Africa, Greenland to Central & E. U.S.A., S. South America to Falkland Islands.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

Morphology General Habit
Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes absent, or elongated. Culms erect; 20-200 cm long; wiry; 1-3 -noded. Leaves mostly basal. Leaf-sheaths smooth, or scaberulous. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 0.5-3 mm long; obtuse. Leaf-blades filiform; involute; 5-20 cm long; 0.3-0.8 mm wide; stiff. Leaf-blade apex abruptly acute, or acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; ovate; effuse; 4-15 cm long; 3-20 cm wide. Panicle branches capillary; scabrous. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform; 3-10 mm long; scabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong, or cuneate; laterally compressed; 4-6 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets. Rhachilla internodes definite; pilose. Floret callus pilose.
Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong, or cuneate; laterally compressed; 4-6 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets. Rhachilla internodes definite; pilose. Floret callus pilose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; similar; reaching apex of florets; similar to fertile lemma in texture; shiny. Lower glume ovate; 3-5 mm long; 0.8-0.9 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface smooth, or asperulous. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; 4-6 mm long; 1.1-1.2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1-3 -veined. Upper glume surface smooth, or asperulous. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma oblong; 3.5-5.5 mm long; membranous; shiny; without keel; 4 -veined. Lemma apex erose; truncate, or obtuse; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn dorsal; arising 0.2 way up back of lemma; geniculate; 4-7 mm long overall; with twisted column. Palea keels scaberulous. Rhachilla extension 0.3-0.4 length of fertile floret; pilose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 3; 2-3 mm long. Ovary glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; 2-2.5 mm long. Hilum punctiform.
Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, and south. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Caucasus, western Asia, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: New Zealand. North America: Subarctic, eastern Canada, north-central USA, northeast USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana and southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
Aveneae. CEH.

Native to:

Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arkansas, Austria, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Borneo, Bulgaria, Burundi, Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Congo, Connecticut, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East European Russia, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Finland, Florida, France, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Hungary, Iceland, Illinois, Indiana, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kuril Is., Labrador, Louisiana, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Nepal, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Prince Edward I., Québec, Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Sicilia, South Carolina, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Vermont, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Yugoslavia, Zaïre

Introduced into:

Alaska, Aleutian Is., Brazil South, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, California, Cape Provinces, Colorado, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Hawaii, Idaho, Mexico Central, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Oregon, Rhode I., South Georgia, Tristan da Cunha, Washington, Wyoming, Yukon

Avenella flexuosa (L.) Drejer appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Gremmen [T070514], Tristan da Cunha Deschampsia flexuosa K000649149
Melbill, J.C. [s.n.], Great Britain Deschampsia flexuosa K000808858
Hedberg [1986], Kenya Deschampsia flexuosa K000333376
Bogdan, A. [3950], Kenya Deschampsia flexuosa K000333378
Verdcourt, B. [2043], Kenya Deschampsia flexuosa K000333381
Westberg, G. [94], Latvia Deschampsia flexuosa K000808848
Durieu, M.M.C. [174], Spain Deschampsia flexuosa K000808839
Serafino, E. [109], Corse Deschampsia flexuosa K000808840
Cope, T.A. [RBG 403], United Kingdom Deschampsia flexuosa K000914527
Mearns, E.A. [1664], Kenya Deschampsia flexuosa K000333383
Hedberg, O. [931], Kenya Deschampsia flexuosa K000333379
Fries [3122], Kenya Deschampsia flexuosa K000333415
Braun, A. [s.n.], Germany Deschampsia flexuosa K000808852
Lange, J. [53], Spain Deschampsia flexuosa K000808841
illegible [s.n.], Germany Deschampsia flexuosa K000808845
Czetz, L. [s.n.] Deschampsia flexuosa K000808847
Reverchon, E. [47], Spain Deschampsia flexuosa K000808838
Hedberg, O. [1840], Kenya Deschampsia flexuosa K000333382
Boreau, A. [s.n.], France Deschampsia flexuosa K000808842
Melvill, J.C. [s.n.], Great Britain Deschampsia flexuosa K000808859
Lejeune, A.L.S. [s.n.] Deschampsia flexuosa K000808850
Bally, J. [3258], Kenya Deschampsia flexuosa K000333380
Boreau, A. [s.n.], France Deschampsia flexuosa K000808843
Uechtritz, M.F.S. von. [s.n.], Czech Republic Deschampsia flexuosa K000808844
s.coll. [s.n.], Great Britain Deschampsia flexuosa K000808851
Bally, J. [3261], Kenya Deschampsia flexuosa K000333416
Ahlberg, F. [s.n.], Norway Deschampsia flexuosa K000808846 epitype
Swartz, O.P. [s.n.] Deschampsia flexuosa K000808849
Fries [2919], Kenya Deschampsia flexuosa K000333377

First published in Fl. Excurs. Hafn.: 32 (1838)

Accepted by

  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.

Not accepted by

  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Deschampsia flexuosa.]


Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2005). A checklist of the native vascular flora of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas): New information on the species present, their ecology, status and distribution Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 132: 115-148.
  • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil
  • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hultén, E.O.G. (1960). Flora of the Aleutian Islands and westernmost Alaska Peninsula: with notes on the flora of Commander Islands, ed. 2: 1-376. Weinheim : J. Cramer ; New York : Hafner Pub. Co.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
  • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

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Kew Backbone Distributions
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Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.