Genus:
Justicia L.

Justicia flava (Forssk.) Vahl

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, SW. Arabian Peninsula.

[FWTA]

Acanthaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Herb, erect or straggling 1-4 ft., with pubescent sulcate stems
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Yellow dark-streaked flowers 1/3-1/2 in. long in pubescent spikes 2-6 in. or more long.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herb with erect to ascending stems up to 1 m or more tall, sometimes with woody rootstock; old stems greyish with irregularly fissured bark; young stems greenish to greyish with a ± dense indumentum of appressed to spreading up to 0.5(–0.8) mm long hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades ovate to lanceolate or elliptic, up to 45–60 x 18–42 mm, with sparse to dense indumentum of up to 0.6 mm long erect to antrorse hairs especially along nerves and margins, apex obtuse to acute, base attenuate to truncate; petiole up to 5–35 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a lax to dense apical secondary spike of opposite 3(–5)-flowered contracted bracteate cymes; bracts leaf-like, lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, 9–10 x 2–3 mm, with a sparse to dense indumentum of up to 0.6 mm long eglandular hairs and often 0.1–0.35 mm long glandular hairs, gradually transformed into lanceolate bracteoles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-lobes 5, ± equal, narrowly triangular or lanceolate-subulate, thin with distinct hyaline margins, 3.6–5.5 x 0.4–0.7 mm in flower, up to 8.5 x 0.9 mm in fruit, indumentum as for bracts
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow, usually getting a dark streak in each corolla-lobe on drying, 7.5–13.4 mm long; tube 4.2–9 mm long; upper lip 3.3–7.7 mm long; lower lip 3.9–7.3 mm long and 4.8–7.2 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers yellow, dull, 1.5–1.8 mm long, cells displaced by 0.5–0.6 mm, tail of lower cell 0.2–1.2 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule yellowish green, sterile in lower 1/3, 4-seeded, 5.4–6.5 x 1.5–1.7 mm, fairly densely pubescent with c. 0.2 mm long ± erect hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds tuberculate with tubercles arranged in ridges.
Distribution
N1–3; C1, 2; S1–3 widespread in tropical Africa, and in tropical Arabia.
Ecology
Altitude range 50–1770 m.
Vernacular
Hor suhad, hubinleh, xosuxar (Somali).
Note
J. flava is widespread and very variable. The Somali material covers most of this diversity and variation is great, e.g., in indumentum characters, leaf shape, corolla size and other quantitative characters. There are both perennials with woody rootstocks, mainly from natural, dry habitats, as well as annual weeds from disturbed or cultivated habitats. However, material from outside Somalia may be much taller and have larger leaves and flowers.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca Acanthaceae (part 2) by Iain Darbyshire, Kaj Vollesen and Ensermu Kelbessa

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herb with 1 to several erect, ascending or scrambling stems from a creeping rhizome or woody rootstock; stems to 0.6(2 in scrambling plants) m long, subglabrous to retrorsely sericeous, rarely pubescent or antrorsely sericeous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sericeous- pubescent or sparsely so on midrib and larger veins, rarely also on lamina; petiole to 2(3.5) cm long; lamina narrowly to broadly ovate to elliptic, largest 4–14.5 × 1.5–6.5 cm; apex acuminate to rounded; base cuneate to attenuate, rarely truncate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in 1–3-flowered dichasia; cymes 2–15(22) cm long; peduncle to 12(16) cm long; peduncle and rachis with indumentum as stems; main axis bracts sometimes tinged purple, lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 7–18 × 1–2(3) mm, sparsely puberulous to pubescent and with scattered to dense stalked capitate glands, usually conspicuously ciliate with hairs to 2 mm long; dichasia bracts and bracteoles linear-lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 7–14 mm long, puberulous and with capitate glands; bracteoles longer than calyx.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 3–6(8) mm long, sericeous-puberulous, at least on veins and with long pilose ciliae, without (rarely with) capitate glands; lobes lanceolate to narrowly triangular, acute to acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow, lower lip with 3 and upper lip with 2 conspicuous reddish brown streaks (absent in C & N Mozambique, Malawi and N & E Zambia), 7–14 mm long, puberulous; tube 4–8 mm long and 3–4 mm diameter; upper lip 3–6 mm long; lower lip spreading or deflexed, 6–11 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Filaments 2–5 mm long, bending out of flower after anthesis; thecae 1–1.5 mm long, oblong, 25–33% overlapping, upper hairy, lower with linear appendage c.1 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 7–11 mm long, uniformly puberulous or densely so.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds black, densely tuberculate, ovoid, 1.5–2 mm long.
Distribution
Widespread in tropical Africa, South Africa and Arabia.
Ecology
Riverine forest and scrub, usually on margins and in clearings, and in a wide range of woodland, bushland and grassland from high rainfall to semi-desert conditions, often in disturbed or secondary vegetation; 20–2000 m.
Conservation
Conservation notes: Widespread; not threatened.

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Justicia flava (Forssk.) Vahl appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2004 Johnston, H.H. [59], Tanzania K000419109 syntype Yes
Dec 1, 2000 Pollard, B.J. [313], Cameroon K000339109 No
Jan 1, 2000 Pollard, B.J. [362], Cameroon 77447.000 No
Jan 1, 2000 Pollard, B.J. [362], Cameroon K000339110 No
Jan 1, 1988 Letouzey, R. [13154], Cameroon K000029467 No
Apr 11, 1900 Wood, J.M. [831], South Africa K000378530 Yes
Apr 11, 1900 Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000378531 Yes
Apr 11, 1900 Holub, E. [s.n.], Botswana K000419258 Yes
Jul 14, 1897 Schimper [1251], Ethiopia K000419159 Yes
Jul 13, 1897 Johnston, H.H. [59], Tanzania K000419108 syntype Yes
Apr 28, 1897 Vogel [s.n.], Ghana K000419068 Yes
Apr 28, 1897 Schimper, W. [2296], Ethiopia K000419160 Yes
Apr 27, 1897 Schimper [1251], Ethiopia K000419158 Yes
Jul 14, 1896 Schweinfurth, G. [256], Sudan K000419161 isotype Yes
Drummond, R. B. [2309], Tanzania 13084.000 No
Hornby, R.M. [112A], Tanzania 13085.000 No
Greenway, P.J. [10660], Tanzania 27073.000 No
Dawkins, H.C. [487], Uganda 2863.000 No
Tweedie, E.M. [674], Kenya 2864.000 No
Faulkner, H. [917], Tanzania 2865.000 No
Bridson, D. [228], Rwanda 41691.000 No
Vogel [s.n.], Nigeria K000419069 Yes
Bussner [258] K000419070 isosyntype Yes
Forbes [s.n.], Mozambique K000419257 syntype Yes
Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000378529 Yes
Bidgood, S. [5994], Tanzania K000468431 No
Meurillon, A. [1401], Cameroon K000029468 No
Jul 15, 1897 Schimper [80], Sudan Justicia palustris K000419157 Yes
Jul 15, 1897 Schimper [1211], Ethiopia Justicia palustris K000419156 Yes
Kotschy [293], Sudan Justicia palustris K000419138 Yes

First published in Symb. Bot. 2: 15 (1791)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Darbyshire, I., Vollesen, K. & Kelbessa, E. (2010). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Acanthaceae (Part 2): 287-756.
  • Darbyshire, I., Vollesen, K. & Kelbessa, E. (2015). Flora Zambesiaca 8(6): 1-314. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Chev. Bot. 500.
  • F.T.A. 5: 190
  • Symb. Bot. 2: 15 (1791)

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Symb. Bot. 2: 15 (1791).
  • in Fl. Cap. 5: 58 (1901).
  • —Bandeira, Bolnick & Barbosa, Fl. Nat. Sul Mozamb.: 195 (2007).
  • —Clarke in F.T.A. 5: 190 (1899).
  • —Vollesen in F.T.E.A., Acanthaceae 2: 532 (2010).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Darbyshire, I., Vollesen, K. & Kelbessa, E. (2015). Flora Zambesiaca 8(6): 1-314. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, (2000) Author: by M. Hedrén [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Plants and People Africa

    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
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