Genus:
Solanum L.

Solanum dennekense Dammer

This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to Tanzania, Yemen.

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: Ethiopia, Arussi-Galla, Dennek, Ellenbeck 1965 (?B†, holo.)
Morphology General Habit
Shrubs 1–5 m high, rarely herbaceous, armed; young stems whitish or occasionally yellowish to 6 mm diameter, with dense stellate-tomentose pubescence, hairs as for S arundo, glabrescent; simple glandular hairs sometimes also present throughout; main stems and branches with scattered recurved sharply pointed prickles as in S. arundo, 6.5–10 × 5.5–8 mm basally
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate or opposite, light green above, whitish to light green below, rough, broadly ovate to obovate, 2.8–4.2(–7.5) × 2.3–3.5(–5.6) cm, bases cordate (cuneate), margins entire to sinuate, definite lobes absent, apices obtuse to acute; veining prominent; both surfaces stellate-tomentose, the hairs to 1 mm diameter with up to 14 equal rays 0.2–0.5 mm long, those below usually denser and enmeshed; usually with a few (to 4) straight acicular prickles 4–9 × 0.4–1 mm on midribs; petioles yellowish, 0.3–1.5 cm long, with occasional straight acicular prickles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal to lateral, simple or forked to multiply-branched, lax, racemose cymes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers few to many(–16), sometimes aromatic, 5-(–6)-merous; axes yellowish and densely stellate-tomentose, hairs as on stems; peduncles erect, .8–1.7 cm long in flower, short and woody in fruit; pedicels erect to recurved and 0.6–1.3 cm in flower, 0.9–1.5 cm in fruit and strongly recurved, thickened beneath calyx
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx yellowish, campanulate, 6–11 mm long, stellate-tomentose externally, glabrous internally with distinct venation, with straight acicular prickles to 2.5 × 0.2 mm usually on tube veins; lobes often unequal, narrowly triangular to -ovate, becoming strongly recurved between corolla lobes, 2.5–6 × 1.5–4 mm, obtuse to acute; adherent basally in fruit then becoming strongly reflexed, 4–8 × 3–7 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla blue to purple, sometimes with white margins, often with a yellow basal star, stellate, 2.2–3.6 cm diameter, tube 2–3.5 mm long, glabrous; lobes ligulate to lanceolate, 7–15 × 1.6–6 mm, acute, densely stellate-tomentose externally, internally with stellate hairs on median veins, margins and towards lobe apices, lobes strongly reflexed after anthesis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens usually equal; filaments free for 0.6–1.5 mm, glabrous; anthers bright yellow to orange, poricidal, (5–)6–8.3 × 1–1.6 mm, usually connivent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary brownish, 1.5–3 × 1.5–3.2 mm, stellate-pubescent with long silky median rays adherent to ovary and stylar base, usually bilocular sometimes 4-locular; style usually straight, stellate-pubescent in lower part, 8–12 mm in hermaphrodite flowers, sometimes curved and exserted up to 5 mm, 3–6 mm enclosed within the staminal tube in ‘male’ flowers, stellate-pubescent in lower part, often with long median rays clasping the stylar base; stigma clavate, usually bi- occasionally tri-lobed, 1–2.2 × 0.6–0.8 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit rough, yellow, globose to ovoid, 1–3 × 1.6–3.2 mm, with thick (0.3–1.5 mm) tough pericarp, sparsely to moderately stellate-tomentose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds > 100 per berry, smooth, orange or brown, 2–3 × 1.4–2.5 mm, obovoid to orbicular, occasionally reniform, not flattened, shallowly punctuate/verrucate; sclerotic granules absent
Figures
Fig 26/9–14, p 217
Ecology
Grassland, often near old Masai manyattas/enkang, Terminalia wooded grassland, woodland, Acacia-Bauhinia bushland, Acacia-Commiphora-Grewia bushland; 1200–1850 m
Note
Herbarium specimens of this species are generally poor – with one collector noting that the leaves immediately crinkle on picking. Another noted that the dense whitish indumentum often sloughs off when touched. In Somalia and Ethiopia this species is often found near cultivated ground and the edges of fields or in groups in grassy places. The plants are browsed by goats and donkeys in K 6, but their frequency in old Masai homestead areas is probably due to their use as protective hedging for cattle against lions and other predators. The flowers are reportedly visited by large bees in Somalia and as being aromatic in T 1.  Friis in Fl. Eth. reported the occurrence of this species in Yemen – but no specimens were seen from this area; he also cited an ‘unlocalised’ specimen of this taxon which was probably from eastern Eritrea. The photograph of Ruspoli & Riva’s syntype clearly illustrates sparse recurved prickles and the entire broadly ovate leaves with prominently cordate bases characteristic of S. dennekense. The holotype of S. gilletti is a good specimen which exhibits all of the morphological features that characterise S. dennekense.
Distribution
Range: Ethiopia, N Somalia (see Note) Flora districts: K1 K6 T1 T2

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Robust shrub, 2–3 m high, branches armed with broad-based recurved prickles and densely tomentose with stellate hairs, also on the lower part of prickles
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, of comparable size throughout the plant; petiole 0.4–0.8 cm long, often armed with prickles, tomentose; blade ovate, 3–6 x 1.6–4 cm, base broadly cuneate to rounded, margin entire or repand, apex acute to acuminate, armed on the midrib with 1–2(–3) narrow prickles, densely tomentose with stellate hairs on both sides
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences lateral, raceme-like, 3–5(–9)-flowered, the lowermost pedicel often arising very close to the stem; rachis unarmed, densely tomentose, 1.5–2.5 cm long; peduncle very short or up to c. 1 cm long; pedicels 0.5–1.3 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx c. 0.8 cm long, with linear-lanceolate lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla pale violet to bluish purple, stellate, 2.3–3 cm in diam., lobes with stellate hairs on both surfaces
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers c. 7 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style exceeding the anthers with 2–3 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit yellow, with a hard yellow wall, c. 2.5 cm in diam., partly enclosed in accrescent calyx which may be armed with prickles.
Distribution
N1, 3; Ethiopia, Kenya
Ecology
Altitude range 500–1200 m.

Native to:

Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania, Yemen

Solanum dennekense Dammer appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Aug 1, 2012 Friis, I. [11183], Ethiopia K000788330 Yes
Jan 1, 2012 Friis, I. [8304], Ethiopia K000546072 isoneotype Yes
Apr 1, 2010 Bally, P.R.O. [B10651], Tanzania K000441628 Yes
Jun 30, 1905 Greenway, P.J. [10582], Tanzania K000441625 Yes
Jun 30, 1905 Tanner, R.E.S. [4284], Tanzania K000441626 Yes
Jun 30, 1905 Bally, P.R.O. [B7608], Tanzania K000441624 Yes
Jun 30, 1905 Tanner, R.E.S. [4284], Tanzania K000441627 Yes
Jun 30, 1905 Tanner, R.E.S. [976], Tanzania K000441623 Yes
Wood, J.R.I. [3223], Yemen K001152129 Yes
Bally, P.R.O. [B3779], Ethiopia K001156188 Yes
Gillett, J.B. [3931], Ethiopia K001156189 Yes
Taiti, S. [1883], Kenya K001157522 Yes
Kirika, P. [s.n.], Uganda K001157520 Yes
Wood, J.R.I. [1939], Yemen K001152128 Yes
Newbould, J.G.B. [5859], Tanzania K001157524 Yes
Brooks, A.P. [86], Tanzania K001157523 Yes
Friis, I. [12878], Ethiopia K001156183 Yes
Glover [724], Uganda K001157521 Yes

First published in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 38: 57 (1905)

Accepted by

  • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

Literature

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by J. Edmonds, I. Friis and M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • E.J. 38: 57 (1905)
  • E.P.A.: 865 (1963)
  • F.R. 16: 144 (1923)
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 573 (1906)
  • Fl. Eth. 5: 135 (2006)
  • Fl. Somalia 3: 215 (2006)
  • Fl. Somalia 3: 215 (2006).
  • Gentes Herb. 12: 265 (1984)
  • Jaeger, Syst. stud. Solanum in Africa: 419 (1985, ined.)
  • K.S.T.L.: 580 (1994)
  • Polhill, Solanum in E & NE Africa: 33 (ined., 1961)
  • U.K.W.F., 2nd ed.: 243 (1994)

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0