Spermacoce exilis (L.O.Williams) C.D.Adams ex W.C.Burger & C.M.Taylor

First published in Fieldiana, Bot., n.s., 33: 316 (1993)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Mexico to Tropical America. It is a annual and grows primarly in the wet tropical biome(s).

Distribution

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil West-Central, Central American Pac, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Assam, Benin, Borneo, Burundi, Cabinda, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, China Southeast, Christmas I., Congo, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre

Synonyms

Homotypic Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E. (2007). The Rubiaceae of Cabinda (Angola). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 154: 455-495.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Middleton, J.D. (ed.) (2019). Flora of Singapore 13: 1-654. Singapore Botanic Gardens.
  • Nelson-Sutherland, C. (2010). Adiciones y Comentarios a la Flora de Honduras. Ceiba; a Scientific and Technical Journal Published by Zamorano 51: 70-88.
  • Puff, C., Chayamarit, K., Chamchumroon, V. & Esser, H.-J. (2021). Flora of Thailand 15(1): 1-235. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Pullaiah, T. & Karuppusamy, S. (2020). Flora of Eastern Ghats 7: 1-474. Regency publications, New Deli.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea). Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

An alternative taxonomy had been proposed by the following authorities:

  • Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (2004). Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 8: 1-874. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis. [Cited as Borreria repens.]
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Spermacoce gracilis.]

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Amith, J. & collaborators (2020). Nahuatl Learning Environment http://www.balsas-nahuatl.org/index.html.
  • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
  • Borhidi, A. (2006). Rubiáceas de México: 1-512. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • GBIF (2008- continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Lozada Pérez, L. & Borhidi, A. (2013). Flora de Guerrero 57: 1-55. Facultade de Ciencias, UNAM.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Pullaiah, T. & Karuppusamy, S. (2020). Flora of Eastern Ghats 7: 1-474. Regency publications, New Deli.
  • Ruhsam, M. (2005). Survey of all the Rubiaceae specimens at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2017 Purseglove [P 4008], Singapore K001273734 No
Jan 1, 2017 Esser, H.-J. et al. [04-25], Thailand K001273736 No
Jan 1, 2011 Du, N.V. et al. [HNK 3262], Vietnam K000174698 No
Nov 1, 2008 Vu Xuan Phuong [HNK 898], Vietnam K001045268 No
Nov 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [13538], Cameroon K000580418 No
Mar 14, 2005 De Vogel [6135], Sulawesi K000172997 No
Mar 1, 2005 Barter [s.n.], Sierra Leone K000173919 Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Thompson, S.A. [1469], Cameroon K000460111 No
Jan 1, 2005 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [6898], Cameroon K000436567 No
Aug 1, 1994 Riedel [147], Bahia K000016514 Yes
Aug 1, 1994 Trail, J.W.H. [439], Brazil K001076182 Yes
Aug 1, 1994 s.coll. [2374], Brazil K001076189 Yes
Aug 1, 1994 Burchell, W.J. [7669], Brazil K001076193 Yes
Aug 1, 1994 Trail, J.W.H. [441], Brazil K001076185 Yes
Aug 1, 1994 Burchell, W.J. [3006-2], Brazil K001076191 Yes
Aug 1, 1994 Burchell, W.J. [4181], Brazil K001076196 Yes
Aug 1, 1994 Trail, J.W.H. [438], Brazil K001076184 Yes
Aug 1, 1994 Prance, G.T. [4316], Brazil K001076186 Yes
Aug 1, 1994 Burchell, W.J. [9219], Brazil K001076190 Yes
Aug 1, 1994 Spruce, R. [2374], Brazil K001076187 Yes
Aug 1, 1994 Gardner, G. [2189], Brazil K001076192 Yes
Aug 1, 1994 Lowe, J. [3981], Brazil K001076183 Yes
Asik, M. [SAN 128430], Sabah K000172992 No
Craven, L. [49], Kalimantan K000172994 No
Vogel, T. [s.n.] K000422896 Yes
Don [s.n.] K000422898 Yes
Bourgeau, E. [2624], Mexico K001076188 Yes
Burchell, W.J. [5655], Brazil K001076195 Yes
Burchell, W.J. [5655], Brazil K001076194 Yes
Van Valkenburg [JVV1303], Kalimantan K000172993 No
Heudelot [558] K000422897 Yes
Panama K001435584 Yes
Panama K001435585 Yes
Eden, M.J. [CAE/MJE/31], Colombia K001435586 Yes
Colombia K001435587 Yes
Colombia K001435588 Yes
Colombia K001435589 Yes
Colombia K001435590 Yes
Colombia K001435591 Yes
Ecuador K001435592 Yes
Ecuador K001435593 Yes
Ecuador K001435594 Yes
Ecuador K001435595 Yes
Ecuador K001435596 Yes
Venezuela, Peru K001435597 Yes
Venezuela, Peru K001435598 Yes
Venezuela, Peru K001435599 Yes
Trinidad, Jamaica, W. Indies K001493579 Yes
Trinidad, Jamaica, W. Indies K001493580 Yes
Trinidad, Jamaica, W. Indies K001493581 Yes
Oct 1, 2001 Ghogue, J.-P. [1], Cameroon Spermacoce mauritiana K000026346 No

Sources

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0