Cassia fistula L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 377 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Indian Subcontinent to Myanmar. It is a tree and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome. It is has environmental uses and social uses, as animal food, a poison and a medicine and for fuel and food.

Distribution

Doubtfully present in:

Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam

Native to:

Assam, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, West Himalaya

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Angola, Borneo, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gambia, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Iraq, Jawa, Kenya, Laccadive Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Maluku, Marianas, Mexico Southwest, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Queensland, Senegal, Society Is., Southwest Caribbean, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Tanzania, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Venezuela, Western Australia, Yemen, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Synonyms

Homotypic Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L. Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • D'Arcy, W.G. (1987). Flora of Panama. Checklist and Index.. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 17: 1-328. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Forero, E. & Castellanos, C. (eds.) (2019). Estudios en Leguminosas Colombianas 3: 1-398. Academia Colombiana de ciencias exactas, físicas y naturales.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae. Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition. Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
  • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a check-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-List: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India. Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Townsend, C.C. (1974). Flora of Iraq 3: 1-662. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2020). https://www.jstor.org/stable/26958715. epublication.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L. Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • D'Arcy, W.G. (1987). Flora of Panama. Checklist and Index.. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 17: 1-328. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Forero, E. & Castellanos, C. (eds.) (2019). Estudios en Leguminosas Colombianas 3: 1-398. Academia Colombiana de ciencias exactas, físicas y naturales.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae. Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition. Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
  • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a check-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-List: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India. Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Townsend, C.C. (1974). Flora of Iraq 3: 1-662. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • Plants for malaria, plants for fever: Medicinal species in Latin America, a bibliographic survey: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (1999). Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

International Legume Database and Information Service

  • Ali, S. I. (1973). Flora of Pakistan, No. 54 Caesalpiniaceae. Karachi:Univ Karac
  • Ambasta, S. P. (1986). The useful plants of India
  • Benthall, A. P. (1946). The trees of Calcutta. Calcutta.
  • Bojer, W. (1837). Hortus Mauritianus ou Enumeration des Plants... l'ile Maurice
  • Bouton, L. (1857). Trans. Roy. Soc. Arts Mauritius n. s. 1:1-177 Medicinal plants...
  • Dale, I. R. (1953). A descriptive list of the introduced trees of Uganda
  • De Wit, H. (1955). Webbia 11: 197-292. A revision of the genus Cassia...
  • DeWit, H. C. D. (1955). Webbia 11:197-292. Revision of Gen. Cassia as occ. in Malaysia
  • Ding Hou, Larsen, S & Larsen, K (1996). Flora Malesiana I, 12, 2:409-784. Caesalpiniaceae.
  • Grierson, A. J. C. & Long, D. G. (1987). Flora of Bhutan, Vol. 1. (Part 3). Edinburgh: RBG
  • Heald, J. (1992). Specimen in Herb. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Horn, P. E. (1988). Herbarium References
  • Jain, S. K. (1991). Dictionary of Indian Folk Medicine and Ethnobotany
  • Khatun, R. B. (1987). Tree Legumes of Bangladesh
  • Larsen, K. et al (1980). In: Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Vietnam, Vol 18. A.
  • Larsen, K. et al. (1984). Flora of Thailand, Vol 4 Part 1. In: T. Smithinand & K. Larsen
  • Leon, H. & Alain, H. (1951). Flora de Cuba 2:224-367 Leguminosas
  • Liogier, A. H. (1985). La Flore de la Espanola. III
  • Liogier, A. H. (1988). Desc. Flora Puerto Rico & Adjacent Is-Spermatophyta Vol. II
  • McVaugh, R. (1987). Flora Novo-Galiciana 5:1-786. Leguminosae
  • Mitsuhashi, H (1988). Illustrated Medicinal Plants of the World. Hokuryukan. Tokyo.
  • Parham, J. W. (1972). Plants of the Fiji Islands
  • Polhill, R, M. (1990). Legumineuses. In: Flore des Mascareignes, Vol 80. J. Bosser et a
  • Robertson, S. A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles. Kew
  • Ross, J. H. (1982). Caesalpinoideae. In: Flora Southern Africa 16, pt. 1. Ross. J. H.
  • Rudd, V. E. (1991). Flora of Ceylon 7: 34-107. Caesalpinioideae
  • Singh, V. (2001). Monograph on Indian Subtribe Cassiinae (Caesalpiniaceae)
  • Sykes, W. (1979). Flora of Niue
  • Terrell, E. E. (1977). Checklist of Names for 3, 000 Vas. Pl... Agric. Handbook No. 505
  • Townsend, C. C. & Guest, E. (1974). Flora of Iraq. Vol. 3. Baghdad.
  • Vaughan, R. E. (1937). Mauritius Inst. Bull. 1(1). Catalogue of flowering plants ...
  • Verdcourt, B. (1979). A Manual of New Guinea Legumes. Office of Forests, Lae, PNG
  • Walker, E. H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and S. Ryukyu islands. Washing. Smithson. Inst
  • Welsh, S. L. (1998). Flora Societensis

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Aug 1, 2013 I Made Maduarta (Pung) [IMM 53], Lesser Sunda Is. K000734536 No
Jan 1, 2007 Williams, David, E. [947], Bolivia K001105604 No
Aug 1, 1990 Santos, T.S. [4514], Bahia K000055990 Yes
Aug 1, 1990 Santos, T.S. [4514], Bahia K000055991 Yes
Jan 1, 1988 Daly, D.C. [5261], Colombia K001105597 No
Owens, S.J., USA 54096.000 No
Schomburgk [894], Brazil K000504599 Unknown type material Yes
Fendler, A. [2241], Venezuela K001105600 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5302] K001120452 Yes
Bruce, H. [Cat. no. 5302], Bangladesh K001120451 Yes
Cárdenas, Lourdes [4105], Venezuela K001105598 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5302] K001120446 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5302] K001120448 Yes
Fendler, A. [2241], Venezuela K001105602 No
Glaziou, A. [6511], Rio de Janeiro K000841274 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 5302], India K001120493 Yes
Cárdenas, Lourdes [4135], Venezuela K001105599 No
Schomburgk [894], Brazil K000504598 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 5302], Myanmar K001120453 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5302] K001120449 Yes
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 5302] K001120450 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.] K001105603 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K000504597 Yes
Miller, O.O. [49(?)], Venezuela K001105601 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5302] K001120444 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5302] K001120445 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5302] K001120447 Yes

Sources

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    • ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • International Legume Database and Information Service

    • International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0