Olea europaea L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 8 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Africa, Medit. to S. Central China. It is a shrub or tree and grows primarily in the subtropical biome. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders, as animal food and a medicine, has environmental uses and social uses and for fuel and food.

Distribution

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Baleares, Botswana, Burundi, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, China South-Central, Cyprus, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Greece, Iran, Italy, Kenya, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Libya, Madeira, Malawi, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Somalia, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, West Himalaya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Argentina Northeast, Ascension, Bermuda, China Southeast, Corse, Egypt, France, Hainan, Hawaii, Iraq, Jawa, Korea, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Marianas, Mexico Southwest, New Zealand North, Norfolk Is., St.Helena, Taiwan, Tibet, Tubuai Is.

Synonyms

Homotypic Synonyms

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Bergmeier, E., Blockeel, T., Böhling, N., Fournaraki, C., Gotsiou, P., Jahn, R., Lansdown, R. & Turland, N. (2011). An inventory of the vascular plants and bryophytes of Gavdopoula island (S Aegean, Greece) and its phytogeographical significance. Willdenowia 41: 179-190.
  • Castroviejo, S. (ed.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Iberica 11: 1-672. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Green, P.S. (2006). World Checklist of Oleaceae Manuscript Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Muer, T., Sauerbier, H. & Cabrara Calixto, F. (2020). Die Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Madeiras: 1-792. Verlag und Versandbuchhandlung Andreas Kleinsteuber.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Species Profiles

  • Green, P.S. (2002). A revision of  Olea L. (Oleaceae). Kew Bulletin 57: 91-140.
  • Jellin, J.M., Gregory, P.J. et al. (2008).  Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. 10th Ed. Therapeutic Research Faculty, Stockton.
  • Newberry, P.E. (1937). On some African species of the genus  Olea and the original home of the cultivated olive-tree.  Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 150: 3-16.
  • Van der Vossen, H.A.M. & Mashungwa, G.N. & Mmolotsi, R.M. (2007). Olea europaea L. In: H.A.M. van der Vossen & G.S. Mkamilo.  Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 14: Vegetable oils. PROTA Foundation; Backhuys Publishers; CTA, Wageningen.
  • Zohary, D. (1995). Olive,  Olea europaea (Oleaceae). In: J.Smartt & N.W.Simmonds,  Evolution of crop plants. Ed. 2. Longman. London.

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Crop wild relative Inventory https://www.cwrdiversity.org/checklist/ in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Cameron, E.K. (2021). Updated vascular flora and vegitation of the Noises islands, Hauraki Gulf. Journal, Auckland Botanical Society 76: 51-81.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae. Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Hallé, N. (1983). Végétation de l'île Rurutu et additions au catalogue de la flore des îles Australes. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 5(2): 141-150.
  • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
  • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1. Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Packer, J.E. (1974). Ascension Handbook. A concise guide to Ascension Island South Atlantic ed. 2 Packer, Georgetown.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Allen, D., Bilz, M., Leaman, D.J., Miller, R.M., Timoshyna, A., & Window, J. (2014). European Red List of medicinal plants. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg 10:907382.
  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Dempewolf, H., Eastwood, R. J., Guarino, L., Khoury, C. K., Müller, J. V. & Toll, J. (2014). Adapting agriculture to climate change: a global initiative to collect, conserve, and use crop wild relatives. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 38, 369-377.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • Plants for malaria, plants for fever: Medicinal species in Latin America, a bibliographic survey: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Sep 24, 2010 Tobey [1564], Turkey K000809056 No
Apr 27, 2001 Simaés, M.P. [400], Portugal K000809053 No
Oct 1, 1999 de Wilde, W. [8513], Ethiopia K000809072 No
Oct 1, 1999 Meyer, F.G. [8177], Ethiopia K000809073 No
Oct 1, 1999 de Wilde, W. [6099], Ethiopia K000809071 No
Oct 1, 1999 Christiaensen, R. [794], Rwanda K000809067 No
Oct 1, 1999 Mogg, A.O.D. [30898], Mozambique K000809075 No
Oct 1, 1999 Lisowski, S. [18058], Congo K000809065 No
Oct 1, 1999 Lisowski, S. [18046], Congo K000809066 No
Oct 1, 1999 Mooney, H.F. [5594], Ethiopia K000809074 No
Oct 1, 1999 Cood, L.E. [9135], South Africa K000809080 No
Oct 1, 1999 Bamps, P. [4585], Angola K000809077 Yes
Oct 1, 1999 Balkwill, K. [7939], South Africa K000809079 No
Oct 1, 1999 Gillett, J.B. [5179], Ethiopia K000809069 No
Oct 1, 1999 Killick, D.J.B. [3027BC], Lesotho K000809078 No
Oct 1, 1999 Meyer, F.G. [7713], Ethiopia K000809070 No
Oct 1, 1999 de Wilde, J. [548], Congo K000809068 No
Oct 1, 1999 Chapman, J.D. [6305], Malawi K000809076 No
Jul 1, 1999 Acebes, J.R. [s.n.], Spain K000809064 No
Dec 1, 1987 Cope, T. [22], Yemen K000809062 No
Dec 1, 1987 Cope, T. [301], Yemen K000809061 No
Polhill, R.M. [4697], Spain 37320.000 No
Collinette, S. [4593], Saudi Arabia 47246.000 No
Maspero [s.n.], Egypt K000190033 Yes
Fay, J.M [1239], Tunisia K000809063 No
Hill, A.W. [2745], Greece K000978901 Yes
Hill, A.W. [2745], Greece K000978902 Yes
Crookshank, H. [156], Pakistan K000809058 No
Ferguson, I.K. [s.n.], Spain K000809055 No
Crookshank, H. [137], Pakistan K000809057 No
Rico, L. [1841], Tunisia K000295999 No
Radcliffe-Smith, A. [5332], Oman K000809060 No
Welwitsch [940], Angola K001008346 Yes

Sources

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    • ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Kew Species Profiles

    • Kew Species Profiles
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/