Plumbago europaea L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Medit. to Iran and Turkmenistan.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Perennial with erect herbaceous stem 30–100 cm tall, branched from base or in its upper part; branches ± erect and narrow
Morphology Leaves
Leaves glaucous or greenish, glabrous, with rare and very small calcareous dots; lower leaves elliptic or obovate to lanceolate, 5–8 × 3–4.5 cm, auriculate at base, slightly amplexicaul, with short petiole, margins dentate-glandular to entire; upper leaves sessile, narrowly lanceolate or linear, passing gradually into bracts
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence an elongated spike or capituliform; flowers with 2–3 leaf-like, greenish, lanceolate or ovoid-elongate glabrous bracts; margins glabrous or glandular, apex acute, shorter (3–4×) than calyx
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tubular, 6–7 mm, with stipitate glands arranged along ribs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla violet-pink, tube 2–3 × calyx, lobes obovate, truncate, obtuse or rounded, veins scarcely prominent.
Ecology
Dry hillside, mountain sides, between Oak trees, beside road and eroded places, on stony ground and between limestones; alt. 650–2200 m
Phenology
May–Aug.
Distribution
Widespread in the thorn-cushion zone of the mountains of NE Iraq. W Mediterranean and S Europe to Turkey, Palestine, Upper Jordan valley, N and NW Iran, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan.

Native to:

Albania, Algeria, Bulgaria, Corse, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., France, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Morocco, North Caucasus, Palestine, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, Spain, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Czechoslovakia

Plumbago europaea L. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Sp. Pl.: 151 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1982). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 7: 1-947. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Delipavlov, D. & Cheshmedzhiev, I. (eds.) (2011). Opredelitel na rasteniiata v Bulgariia: 1-590. Akad. Isd. Agrar. Univers. Plovdiv.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Mateos, M.A. & Valdés, B. (2009). Catálogo de la flora vascular del Rif occidental calizo (N de Marruecos). I Selaginellaceae - Rosaceae Lagascalia 29: 105-257.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Rechinger, K.H. & Schiman-Czeika, H. (1974). Flora Iranica 108: 1-158. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.

Literature

Flora of Iraq

  • Boiss. in DC., Prodr. 12: 691 (1848)
  • Boiss., Fl. Orient. 4: 875 (1879);
  • Bokhari & Edmondson in Fl. Turk. 7: 464 (1982).
  • Grossh., Fl. Kavk. ed. 2, 7: 190 (1967);
  • Guest in Dep. Agr. Iraq Bull. 29: 75 (1933);
  • Kuznetsov, Fl. Cauc. Crit. 4, 1: 174 (1901);
  • Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 3: 471 (1850);
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 3, 1, 151 (1753);
  • Rech. f. & Schiman-Czeika in Fl. Iranica 108: 3 (1974);
  • Zohary in Dep. Agr. Iraq Bull. 31: 115 (1952);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palaest. 3: 8 (1978);

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1982). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 7: 1-947. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Mateos, M.A. & Valdés, B. (2009). Catálogo de la flora vascular del Rif occidental calizo (N de Marruecos). I Selaginellaceae - Rosaceae Lagascalia 29: 105-257.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Rechinger, K.H. & Schiman-Czeika, H. (1974). Flora Iranica 108: 1-158. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.

  • Flora of Iraq

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  • Kew Backbone Distributions

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    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

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