Ficus benjamina L.

First published in Mant. Pl.: 129 (1767)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Tropical & Subtropical Asia and N. Australia. It is a tree and grows primarily in the wet tropical biome. It is used as animal food, a poison and a medicine, has environmental uses and social uses and for fuel and food.

Distribution

Native to:

Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Solomon Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam

Introduced into:

Cayman Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Florida, Haiti, Leeward Is., Puerto Rico, Society Is., Sri Lanka, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is.

Synonyms

Homotypic Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2012). Nova Silva Cusatlantica. Árboles natinos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 2: Angiospermae - Familias M a P y Pteridophyta. Englera 29-2: 1-300.
  • Chaudhary, L.B., Sudhakar, J.V., Kumar, A., Bajpai, O., Tiwari, R. & Murthy, G.V.S. (2012). Synopsis of the genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in India. Taiwania 57: 193-216.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1981). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 3: 1-499. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1997). Flora of North America North of Mexico 3: 1-590. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • George, A.S. (ed.) (1989). Flora of Australia 3: 1-219. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Ghafoor, A. (1985). Flora of Pakistan 171: 1-54. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1983). Flora of Bhutan 1(1): 1-186. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh lục các loài thực vật Việt Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà Nội : Nhà xuất bản Nông nghiệp.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2003). Flora of China 5: 1-505. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2012). Nova Silva Cusatlantica. Árboles natinos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 2: Angiospermae - Familias M a P y Pteridophyta. Englera 29-2: 1-300.
  • Chaudhary, L.B., Sudhakar, J.V., Kumar, A., Bajpai, O., Tiwari, R. & Murthy, G.V.S. (2012). Synopsis of the genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in India. Taiwania 57: 193-216.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1981). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 3: 1-499. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1997). Flora of North America North of Mexico 3: 1-590. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • George, A.S. (ed.) (1989). Flora of Australia 3: 1-219. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh lục các loài thực vật Việt Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà Nội : Nhà xuất bản Nông nghiệp.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Aug 1, 2013 I Made Maduarta (Pung) [IMM 199], Lesser Sunda Is. K000734542 No
Jan 1, 2010 Ingle [482], Philippines K000611553 No
Jan 1, 2010 Ingle [528], Philippines K000611554 No
Jan 1, 2010 Takeuchi [16285], Papua New Guinea K000611595 No
Jan 1, 2010 Takeuchi [15552], Papua New Guinea K000611598 No
Jan 1, 2010 Takeuchi [16839], Papua New Guinea K000611603 No
Jan 1, 2010 Takeuchi [16285], Papua New Guinea K000611610 No
Dec 1, 2009 Ronsted et al. [573], Thailand K000611240 No
Dec 1, 2009 Ronsted et al. [580], Thailand K000611241 No
May 3, 2006 Berhaman, A. et al. [81], Malaysia K000352357 No
Jan 28, 2005 Garcia, H. G. et al. [PPI 15112], Philippines K000228265 No
Jan 28, 2005 Garcia, H. G. et al. [PPI 15187], Philippines K000228267 No
Sep 15, 2004 Fuentes [PPI 37470], Philippines K000222651 No
Sep 15, 2004 Garcia [PPI 25025], Philippines K000222639 No
Oct 1, 1958 s.coll. [s.n.], Lesser Sunda Is. K001050354 Yes
Oct 1, 1958 s.coll. [s.n.], Lesser Sunda Is. K001050355 Yes
Papua New Guinea 13117.000 No
Lambert, F.R. [C A3], Malaysia 52648.000 No
Lambert, F.R. [s.n.], Malaysia 52685.000 No
Lambert, F.R. [A81], Malaysia 52706.000 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4503] K001039181 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4503], India K001039179 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4503], India K001039180 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4503] K001039177 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4503], India K001039178 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4523], India Ficus nitida K001039230 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4523] Ficus nitida K001039233 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4523], Nepal Ficus nitida K001039232 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4523], Malaysia Ficus nitida K001039231 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4523], India Ficus nitida K001039228 Yes
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 4523] Ficus nitida K001039234 Yes
Aug 1, 1958 Cuming, H. [1932], Philippines Ficus benjamina var. nuda K001050700 Yes
Nov 1, 1956 Salvosa, F. [28480], Philippines Ficus benjamina var. nuda K001050699 Yes

Sources

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    • ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0