Prosthechea cochleata (L.) W.E.Higgins

Prosthechea cochleata is valued for the unusual shape of its flowers, which can resemble an octopus (albeit a five-legged one), and is common in cultivation. The name Prosthechea is taken from the Greek for appendage (prostheke), and refers to the appendage on the back of the column of P. glauca, which is the type species for the genus. The shape of the lip, with lines across it, can be seen to resemble a cockleshell. This species can be found in bloom most of the year.

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description
The cockleshell orchid is the National Flower of Belize, where it is known to residents as the black orchid.

Prosthechea cochleata is valued for the unusual shape of its flowers, which can resemble an octopus (albeit a five-legged one), and is common in cultivation. The name Prosthechea is taken from the Greek for appendage (prostheke), and refers to the appendage on the back of the column of P. glauca, which is the type species for the genus. The shape of the lip, with lines across it, can be seen to resemble a cockleshell. This species can be found in bloom most of the year.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

This species occurs throughout Central America, the West Indies, Colombia, Venezuela and southern Florida. Members of the genus Prosthechea are found at elevations ranging from sea level to 2600 m.

Description

The smooth pseudobulbs of Prosthechea cochleata are oblong-discoid in shape. Each pseudobulb bears one to three linear non-succulent leaves, which are clasping at the base. The flowers with their dark hood-like lip and paler dangling sepals and petals, are borne on continuously growing racemes. The flowers are unusual in that they are held the other way up in comparison with the majority of orchids. Instead of being resupinate (twisted so that the lip is borne upside down) the lip is held at the top of the flower (non-resupinate). This species commences flowering in the spring and may continue for up to six months.

Threats and conservation

This species is listed on CITES Appendix II, meaning that trade in this species is controlled to ensure its survival.

Uses

Prosthechea cochleata is the National Flower of Belize. It is frequently grown as an ornamental for its long-lasting flowers. Commercial orchid growers have produced several interspecific and intergeneric hybrids using this species.

Pseudobulbs of Prosthechea cochleata were used in Central America as a source of mucilage (a sticky substance used as an adhesive).

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

Number of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank: Six

Cultivation

Prosthechea cochleata is commonly cultivated for its unusual and dramatic, long-lasting flowers, which are borne on continually growing racemes.

This species is cultivated in the Tropical Nursery (one of the behind-the scenes areas) at Kew. Plants are placed in pots which allow for a couple of years' growth. The Kew standard epiphytic orchid mix is used (three parts bark, two parts pumice and one part charcoal) as the substrate. Plants are watered and misted throughout the year, although less water is given when plants are not actively growing. Plants are given as much light as possible during the winter, but shaded from direct sunlight in the summer. The emerging flower buds can be prone to mealy bug infestation. Staking is necessary to obtain straight flower spikes, and to hold plants firmly after re-potting.

Where to see the cockleshell orchid at Kew

This species can sometimes be seen as part of the Tropical Extravaganza Festival at Kew. The dramatic display around the central pond in the Princess of Wales Conservatory can include cockleshell orchids with their octopus-shaped flowers.

The spirit collection, which is housed in the Herbarium (one of the behind-the-scenes areas of Kew) contains two specimens of this species. These alcohol-preserved specimens were collected by Kew staff on expeditions to Cuba and the Dominican Republic. The spirit collection can be searched using the Herbarium Catalogue.

Distribution
Venezuela
Ecology
Epiphytic on trees in moist woodland and swamps. In tropical rainforest this species is often found between 2 and 20 m high on the vertical trunks of large trees, in a micro-habitat above other more shade-tolerant orchids.
Conservation
Not currently rated by the IUCN. Listed on CITES Appendix II.
Hazards

None known.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean, Guiana Shield. Elevation range: 350–1200 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Meta.
Habit
Herb, Epiphyte.
Conservation
National Red List of Colombia (2021): LC. Listed in Appendix II of CITES.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, artificial - terrestrial.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 350 - 1200 m.; Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, epífita
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[UPFC]
Use Food
Used for food.

Native to:

Bahamas, Belize, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

English
Cockleshell orchid

Prosthechea cochleata (L.) W.E.Higgins appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jamaica Epidendrum cochleatum 18348.000 No
Epidendrum cochleatum 18352.000 No
Mexico Epidendrum cochleatum 20153.000 No
Epidendrum cochleatum 20164.000 No
Jamaica Epidendrum cochleatum 20168.000 No
Mexico Epidendrum cochleatum 21501.000 No
Jamaica Epidendrum cochleatum 21502.000 No
Leppard, M.J. [847], Jamaica Epidendrum cochleatum 38158.000 No
Lewis, G.P. [1829], Cuba Encyclia cochleata 56650.000 No
Chase, M.W.C. [83065], Dominican Republic Encyclia cochleata 75803.000 No

First published in Phytologia 82: 377 (1997 publ. 1998)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 3: 1-884. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Noguera-Savelli, E. & Cetzal-Ix, W. (2014). Revisión e integración del conocimiento de las Orchidaceae de Tabasco, México. Botanical Sciences 92: 519-540.
  • Szlachetko, D.L. (ed.) (2016). Orchids of the Guianas (Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana) 1: 1-461. Koeltz Botanical Books.

Literature

Kew Species Profiles

  • Hagsater, E. et al. (2005). Orchids of Mexico. Productos Farmaceuticos. p.89.
  • Luer, C.A. (1972). The Native Orchids of Florida. The New York Botanical Garden.
  • McLeish, I., Pearce, N.R. & Adams, B.R. (1995). Native Orchids of Belize. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.
  • Pridgeon A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase M.W. & Rasmussen, F.N. (Eds.) (2005). Genera Orchidacearum, Volume 4, Epidendroideae (Part one). Oxford University Press.
  • United States Botanic Garden.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • CITES (2021). Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. https://cites.org/eng/app/appendices.php
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2019). Lista de especies vedadas por la resolución 213 de 1977. 8256 especies. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_plantaspriorizadas_2019

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Kew Species Profiles

    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0