Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T.Aiton

This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, N. & Tropical Africa to Indo-China. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders, as animal food, a poison and a medicine, has environmental uses and social uses and for fuel and food.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Ecology
Alt. 0 - 2720 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb, subsrhub, shrub, small tree, liana or creeper.
Distribution
Naturalised in Colombia.
Vernacular
Kapooyo.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean, Caribbean. Elevation range: 0–2720 m a.s.l. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Atlántico, Bolívar, Boyacá, Casanare, Cundinamarca, Huila, Magdalena, Santander, Tolima, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Herb, Shrub, Subshrub, Small tree, Liana, Climbing.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: shrubland.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2720 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, subarbusto, arbusto, arbolito, trepadora, liana,
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Stout, weakly to strongly branched succulent shrub 2–7 m tall; young parts shortly tomentose, often appearing farinose, glabrescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves subsessile or shortly petiolate; blade 7–26 x 4–15.5 cm, ovate, oblong-ovate, elliptic or more usually broadly obovate, apex rounded or obtuse with a short acuminate tip, base cordate, often obscuring the petiole, glaucous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicels and Peduncles
Peduncles robust, (0–)3–8 cm long; pedicels slender, 1–3.5 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 4–5 x 3–4 mm, ovate, acute or subacute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla campanulate, white with purple tips to the lobes, glabrous; lobes erect or spreading, 7–10 x 6–7 mm, ovate, acute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corona
Corona-lobes white or purple, 5–6 x 3 mm, oblong, obliquely truncate or rounded, cleft radially in the upper half, minutely scabrid along the margins, basal spur c. 2 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Follicles 8–13 cm long, ovoid to subglobose, with one side somewhat flattened, obtuse or depressed at the apex.
Distribution
N1, 2; S1, 2 drier parts of tropical Africa, Arabia and India; naturalised elsewhere in the tropics.
Ecology
Altitude up to c. 1200 m.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
algodón, algodón andariego, algodón chino, algodón de Castilla, algodón de seda, algodón extranjero, algodón fino, algodón lechero, gallito, güevas de perro, lechero, palo de algodón, quiebraplatos, vagamundo, vejigo, vejigón

[FTEA]

Apocynaceae (part 2), David Goyder, Timothy Harris, Siro Masinde, Ulrich Meve, Johan Venter. Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2012

Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncles robust, 3–8 cm long, very occasionally absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts caducous, ovate-lanceolate, 7–12 mm long, acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels slender, 10–35 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx lobes ovate, 4–5 × 3–4 mm, acute or subacute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white with purple tips to the lobes, campanulate, united for ± 1/3 of its length, glabrous; lobes erect or spreading, ovate, 7–10 × 6–7 mm, acute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corona
Corona white or purple; lobes 5–6 × ± 3 mm, oblong, obliquely truncate or rounded, cleft radially in the upper half, minutely scabrid along the margins, basal spur ± 2 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynostegium
Gynostegium ± 7 mm high, the head of the column forming a drum ± 2 × 5 mm; corpusculum ± 0.4 mm long, slightly winged; translator arms 0.2–0.3 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pollinia
Pollinia 1.2–1.5 × 0.6–0.7 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Follicles ovoid to subglobose, 8–13 cm long, with one side somewhat flattened, obtuse or depressed at the apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ovate, ± 7 × 5 mm, with a narrow rim, minutely pubescent
Figures
Fig 89, p 369
Ecology
Close to villages on disturbed or degraded land, usually on sand, also along banks of dry river beds in the north; (0–)400–1400 m
Morphology General Habit
Succulent shrub, 2–5 m tall, stout, weakly to strongly branched; young parts shortly tomentose, often appearing farinose, glabrescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with petiole up to 5 mm long; lamina ovate, oblong-ovate, elliptic or more usually broadly obovate, 7–26 × 4–15.5 cm, apex rounded or obtuse with a short acuminate tip, base cordate, often obscuring the petiole, slightly succulent, with conspicuous midrib and arched lateral veins, glaucous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences many-flowered, usually with at least 2 major branches each with successive subumbelliform clusters of flowers.
Distribution
Flora districts: U1 U2 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Range: Drier parts of tropical Africa, Arabia and south Asia, naturalised elsewhere in the tropics

[UPB]
Use Materials
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.

[FSOM]
Use
Seed hairs used for stuffing pillows. Rope made from stem.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Algeria, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Kuwait, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Uganda, Vietnam, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Argentina Northwest, Aruba, Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Cayman Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Florida, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Iraq, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Panamá, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Queensland, South Australia, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Western Australia, Windward Is.

Spanish
Algodón de seda, quiebraplatos, algodón chino.

Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T.Aiton appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Mar 20, 1989 Wight, R. [91 B] K000910116 Unknown type material Yes
Mar 1, 1982 Lewis, G.P. [1108], Brazil K001060855 isolectotype Yes
Jan 1, 1980 Mori, S.A. [12838], Brazil K001060861 Yes
Jan 1, 1974 Irwin, H.S. [31603], Brazil K001060854 Yes
Jan 1, 1966 Eiten, G. [4905], Brazil K001060857 Yes
Mclintock [8], Cameroon 23281.000 No
Milne-Redhead, E. [5021], Nigeria 23663.000 No
Smith, A.R. [249A], Yemen 30641.000 No
33690.000 No
Greenway, P.J. [10396], Kenya 3407.000 No
Lewis, G.P. [1108], Brazil 44666.000 No
Harley, R.M. [15318], Brazil 45728.000 No
Goyder, D.J. [3212], Malawi 56158.000 No
Batt, G., Ethiopia 7631.000 No
Ratter, J.A. [R 2679], Brazil K001060859 Yes
Agra, M.F. [1555], Brazil K001060860 Yes
Lowe, R.T. [s.n.], Cape Verde K001134231 No
Lewis, G.P. [s.n.], Brazil K001060856 Yes
Brunner [54] K001134244 No
Harley, R.M. [15318], Brazil K001060862 Yes
Bolle, C.B. [s.n.], Cape Verde K001134228 No
Cardoso, J. [173], Cape Verde K001134230 No
Harley, R.M. [19089], Brazil K001060863 isolectotype Yes
Ratter, J.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001060858 Yes
s.coll. [91 B], Bihar K000910117 Yes
Moseley [s.n.], Cape Verde K001134232 No
Wight, R. [91 a], Myanmar K000910115 Unknown type material Yes
Welwitsch [4180], Cape Verde K001134229 No
Bolivia: Santa Cruz K001492248 Yes
Bolivia: Santa Cruz K001492249 Yes
Bolivia: Santa Cruz K001492250 Yes
Colombia, Venezuela K001492251 Yes
Colombia, Venezuela K001492254 Yes
Colombia, Venezuela K001492255 Yes
Mar 20, 1989 Royle, H.B. [s.n.], Uttar Pradesh Calotropis hamiltonii K000910118 syntype Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8215] Calotropis hamiltonii K001129265 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8215] Calotropis hamiltonii K001129264 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8215], India Calotropis hamiltonii K001129266 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8215], India Calotropis hamiltonii K001129263 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8215], India Calotropis hamiltonii K001129262 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8216], Myanmar Calotropis wallichii K001129267 Yes

First published in Hortus Kew. 2: 78 (1811)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. & al. (eds.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 6: 1-408. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L. Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2009). Flora Mesoamericana 4(1): 1-855. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. II. Leguminosae à Compositae. Candollea 47: 397-481.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015). Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names. Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Goyder, D.J., Gilbert, M.G. & Venter, H.J.T. (2020). Flora Zambesiaca 7(3): 1-375. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Goyder, S., Harris, T., Masinde, S., Meve, U. & Venter, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Apocynaceae(2): 1-530.
  • Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M. & Long, G. (eds.) in Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M., & Long, G. (1984). Med-checklist 3: Dicotyledones (Convolvulaceae - Labiatae) 1: 1-330. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques, Ville de Genève.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Guinea, E. (1948). Catálogo razonado de las plantas del Sáhara Español. Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 8: 357-429.
  • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jagtap, A.P. & Singh, N.P. (1999). Fascicles of Flora of India 24: 1-332. Botanical Survey of India, New Delhi.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée. Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico. Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India. Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1996). Flora of Australia 28: 1-335. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Rapini, A. (2010). Revisitando as Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae) da Cadeia do Espiniaço. Boletim de Botânica da Universidade de São Paulo 28: 97-123.
  • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(1): 1-628. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1995). Flora of China 16: 1-479. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Belgrano, M.J. & Zanotti, C.A. (eds.) (2021). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 19(2): 1-466. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Bernal, R., Galeano, G., Rodríguez, A., Sarmiento, H. & Gutiérrez, M. (2017). Nombres comunes de las plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew's Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L. Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2009). Flora Mesoamericana 4(1): 1-855. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2012). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
  • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015). Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names. Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Goyder, D.J., Gilbert, M.G. & Venter, H.J.T. (2020). Flora Zambesiaca 7(3): 1-375. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Goyder, S., Harris, T., Masinde, S., Meve, U. & Venter, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Apocynaceae(2): 1-530.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jagtap, A.P. & Singh, N.P. (1999). Fascicles of Flora of India 24: 1-332. Botanical Survey of India, New Delhi.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée. Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico. Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1996). Flora of Australia 28: 1-335. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(1): 1-628. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • USDA, NRCS (2005-continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Belgrano, M.J. & Zanotti, C.A. (eds.) (2021). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 19(2): 1-466. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by D. Goyder [updated by M. Thulin 2008]
  • Pickering, H. & Awale, A. I. (2018). Introduction to plants in Central Somaliland. Ponte Invisibile, Redsea Cultural Foundation.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: fig. 569 (1987)
  • F.P.U.: 120 (1962)
  • F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 2: 91 (1963)
  • Fl. Eth. 4(1): 119, fig. 140.12 (2003)
  • Fl. Somalia 3: 144 (2006).
  • Hort. Kew. ed. 2, 2: 78 (1811)
  • I.T.U.: 37 (1951)
  • K.T.S.L.: 490 (1994)
  • Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edin. 38: 290 (1980)
  • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 177 (1994)
  • U.O.P.Z.: 165 (1949)

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2015). Identificación de las plantas útiles como Productos Forestales No Maderables del Bosque seco-Tropical en tres ventanas del Caribe colombiano. 1386 registros, aportados por: Garcia, H. (Contacto del Recurso), López Camacho, R. (Creador del recurso), Sarmiento Bernal, C. (Proveedor del metadatos). Espitia Palenci, L. (Autor), Gallego, B. (Punto de contacto), Aguilar Cano, J. (Curador), Mendoza, H. (Curador). Versión 2.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=rrbb_bst-caribe_plantae_2015
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (1999). Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

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  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

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  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
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  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
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  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

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  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
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  • Kew Science Photographs

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  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

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