Genus:
Euphorbia L.

Euphorbia thymifolia L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America. It is used as a poison and a medicine and for food.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1200 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Prostrate densely branching annual herb, with branches to 25 cm. long, glabrous on the undersurface, the upper surface densely pilose with fairly long curved adpressed hairs, the whole plant tinged reddish brown.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves ovate, to 8 × 4 mm., base obliquely subcordate, apex obtuse, margin shallowly toothed, upper surface glabrous, the lower surface with long scattered hairs; petiole 0.5 mm. long; stipules free, linear, to 1.25 mm. long, often deeply 2–3-toothed, pilose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Cyathia
Cyathia solitary, subsessile, terminal and pseudoaxillary on congested leafy shoots, ± 0.5 × 0.5 mm., with funnel-shaped involucres, pilose; glands 4, minute, subcircular, red, with often almost invisible red appendages; lobes minute, triangular, ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers very few (5 or less):bracteoles reduced to 1 or 2 threads; stamens 0.8 mm. long. Female flower:ovary subsessile; styles 0.6 mm. long, erect, bifid to halfway.
sex Male
Male flowers very few (5 or less):bracteoles reduced to 1 or 2 threads; stamens 0.8 mm. long.
sex Female
Female flower:ovary subsessile; styles 0.6 mm. long, erect, bifid to halfway.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule subsessile (pedicel 0.2 mm. long), splitting the involucre during development, 3-lobed, with truncate base, 1 × 1 mm., pilose with short adpressed hairs.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds conical, sharply 4-angled, 0.6 × 0.4 mm., reddish brown, with shallow transverse ridges and grooves.
Habitat
On disturbed ground in sandy soil; 1050–1150 m.
Distribution
T4 T8 West Africa eastwards to Central African Republic, Zaire and Zambia, with one specimen seen from Mozambiquea pantropical weed apparently only recently spreading into East Africa

[FWTA]

Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A prostrate herb
Morphology Leaves
Leaves often purplish
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Involucral glands red
Note
An introduced weed.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Caribbean, Orinoquia, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–1200 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Atlántico, Bolívar, Caquetá, Chocó, Córdoba, Guainía, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Norte de
Habit
Herb.
Conservation
National Red List of Colombia (2021): Potential LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.

[FZ]

Euphorbiaceae, S. Carter & L.C. Leach. Flora Zambesiaca 9:5. 2001

Morphology General Habit
Prostrate densely branching annual herb, whole plant tinged reddish-brown; branches to 25 cm long, glabrous on the underside, densely pilose above with curved appressed hairs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with a petiole 0.5 mm long; stipules to 1.25 mm long, linear, often deeply 2–3-toothed, pilose; lamina to 8 × 4 mm, ovate, obtuse at the apex, obliquely subcordate at the base, shallowly toothed at the margin, upper surface glabrous, lower surface with long scattered hairs.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Cyathia
Cyathia terminal and pseudoaxillary on congested leafy shoots, solitary, subsessile, c. 0.5 × 0.5 mm, with funnel-shaped involucres, pilose; glands 4, minute, subcircular, red, with often almost invisible red appendages; lobes minute, triangular, ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers very few (5 or less): bracteoles reduced to 1 or 2 threads; stamens 0.8 mm long. Female flower: ovary subsessile; styles 0.6 mm long, erect, bifid to halfway.
sex Male
Male flowers very few (5 or less): bracteoles reduced to 1 or 2 threads; stamens 0.8 mm long.
sex Female
Female flower: ovary subsessile; styles 0.6 mm long, erect, bifid to halfway.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule subsessile, splitting the involucre during development, 1 × 1 mm, 3-lobed with a truncate base, pilose with short appressed hairs.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 0.6 × 4 mm, conical, sharply 4-angled, with shallow transverse ridges and grooves, reddish-brown.

[UPFC]
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Comoros, Congo, East Himalaya, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Line Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Malaya, Maldives, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Vietnam, Wake I., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre

Euphorbia thymifolia L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
May 1, 2010 Darbyshire, I. [329], Cameroon K000683087
Jan 1, 1985 Thomas, D.W. [4283], Cameroon K000180551
Jan 1, 1954 Johnston, H.H. [0 s.n.01], Cameroon K000180553
Afzelius [s.n.], Sierra Leone K000252771
Sales, M.F. [629], Brazil K001211088
Figueiredo, M.A. [624], Brazil K001211096
Tweedie [1400], Brazil K001211100
Martius [4992], Brazil K001211101
Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil K001211103
Trail, J.W.H. [718], Brazil K001211113
Prance, G.T. [8694], Brazil K001211095
Irwin, H.S. [17589], Brazil K001211090
Lowe, J. [3983], Brazil K001211094
Baker, C.F. [39], Brazil K001211105
Irwin, H.S. [7587], Brazil K001211091
Sales, M.F. [629], Brazil K001211087
Gardner, G. [1128], Brazil K001211099
Costa, M.A.S. [258], Brazil K001211098
Burchell, W.J. [9108], Brazil K001211104
Ridley, L. [s.n.], Brazil K001211107
Heyde [4271], Guatemala K000253709
Punt, W. [338], Brazil K001211110
Glaziou, A.F.M. [22080], Brazil K001211114
Philcox, D. [3200], Brazil K001211108
Riedel [s.n.], Brazil K001211111
Prance, G.T. [18021], Brazil K001211093
Pastore, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001211106
Burchell, W.J. [9592], Brazil K001211102
Glaziou, A.F.M. [13188], Brazil K001211112
Irwin, H.S. [21670], Brazil K001211092
Prance, G.T. [15595], Brazil K001211109
Eiten, G. [9710], Brazil K001211089
Ule, E. [8196], Brazil K001211115
Goeldi, A. [1096], Brazil K001211097

First published in Sp. Pl.: 454 (1753)

Accepted by

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  • da Silva, O.L.M., Cordeiro, I. & Caruzo, M.B.R. (2014). Synopsis of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil Phytotaxa 181: 193-215.
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Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

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Flora of West Tropical Africa

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Kew Backbone Distributions

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  • Halford, D.A. & Harris, W.K. (2012). A taxonomic revision of Euphorbia section Anisophyllum Roeper (Euphorbiaceae) in Australia Austrobaileya 8: 441-600.
  • Hallé, N. (1980). Les Orchidees de Tubuai (archipel des Australes, Sud Polynesie), suivies d'un catalogue des plantes a fleurs et fougeres des iles Australes Cahiers de l'Indo-Pacifique 2(3): 69-130.
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Flora of Tropical East Africa

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  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
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  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
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  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

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  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

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