Family:
Fabaceae Lindl.

Centrosema (DC.) Benth.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.

[FTEA]

Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Morphology General Habit
Herbs or subshrubs, climbing or prostrate
Morphology Leaves
Leaves pinnately (1–)3(–7)-foliolate, rarely digitately 3–5-foliolate; stipules not spurred, persistent; stipels present
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary, falsely racemose, (1–)few-many-flowered; rhachis often thickened at the insertion of the pedicels; bracts paired, mostly persistent, striate, those towards the apex of the inflorescence united; bracteoles adpressed to the calyx, striate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-lobed, the upper pair of lobes united to form an emarginate or bifid lip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Standard rounded, spurred or rarely with a tubercle on the back above the claw
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Vexillary stamen free or ± joined with the others; anthers uniform
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary linear, many-ovuled; style bent, compressed towards the summit, spathulate, pubescent or bearded at the apex, stigma terminal
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pods linear, compressed, with 4 raised nerves or wings, filled between the seeds
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds oblong or globose, compressed; hilum linear, oblong or narrowly elliptic; aril small or absent.

[LOWO]

Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

Habit
Herbs or subshrubs
Ecology
Tropical and subtropical bushland formations derived from seasonal forest, woodland, wooded grassland and shrubland, also forest margins
Distribution
S America (most spp. in Brazil), C America, Caribbean, Mexico and SE USA; 3 spp. widely introduced in the Old World
Note
Placed in subtribe Clitoriinae (see comments under Clitoria)

Previous accounts of the Phaseoleae by Baudet (1978) and Lackey (1981) recognised 90 and 84 genera and c. 1540 and 1480 species respectively in the tribe. In an equivalent, i.e. traditionally held view of Phaseoleae, 89 genera and (1554)–1567–(1580) species are treated here (Table 9; Fig. 47). Changes between Baudet (1978) and this treatment are that eleven genera are now in synonymy or have subsequently been placed in Millettieae, two genera have been transferred from Desmodieae and eight new genera have been added. Vigna has traditionally been thought to comprise some 150–200 species, but Vigna sens. strict. may contain fewer than 100.

Recent molecular analyses of the tribe, however, have emphasised both the polyphyletic and paraphyletic nature of Phaseoleae as traditionally circumscribed (Bruneau & Doyle, 1990; Doyle & Doyle, 1993; Delgado Salinas et al., 1993; Bruneau et al., 1995; Doyle et al., 1997, 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Goel et al., 2001; Lee & Hymowitz, 2001). This has required a radical realignment of elements of the phaseoloids (Table 9; Fig. 47), with at least two major clades being evident: Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae and Ophrestiinae which together with tribe Abreae are allied to the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45), and the remaining groups comprising a Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade. The rbcL phylogeny of Kajita et al. (2001) and the ITS analysis of Hu et al. (2002) are equivocal as to which clade subtribe Clitoriinae belongs. Phaseoleae sens. lat. also includes two traditionally independent tribes, the Desmodieae and Psoraleeae. Delimiting a recircumscribed Phaseoleae sens. strict is thus very problematic. A solution may be to recognise a broad tribe Phaseoleae, comprising the subtribes Kennediinae, Cajaninae, Phaseolinae and Glycininae, assorted basally branching genera, and tribes Desmodieae and Psoraleeae (both treated at subtribal level).

[FZ]

Leguminosae, B. Mackinder, R. Pasquet, R. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:5. 2001

Morphology General Habit
Climbing herbs or subshrubs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate in the Flora Zambesiaca area, elsewhere (1)3(7)-foliolate; stipules small, striate; stipels present.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences (1)few–many-flowered, falsely racemose; bracts paired, striate; bracteoles appressed to the calyx, striate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-lobed, the upper pair largely joined into a bifid lip.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla showy; standard broad, with a conspicuous spur on the back above the claw, often pubescent outside.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Vexillary filament free or joined to the others at the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary linear, many-ovuled; style curved, flattened and slightly widened towards the terminal stigma, pubescent or bearded at the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pod linear, with 4 raised nerves or wings, dehiscent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds variously coloured, oblong or ellipsoid, with an elliptic to linear hilum.

[LOWO]
Use
Important forage and pasture crops with a broad range of tolerance of extreme conditions; also used as cover crops and green manure

Native to:

Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Georgia, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Kentucky, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Virginia, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Liberia, Malaya, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Northern Territory, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Queensland, Réunion, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Centrosema (DC.) Benth. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Mar 22, 2006 Ribas, O.S. [3038], Brazil K000920984 Yes
Sep 20, 1991 Hatschbach, G.G. [52947], Brazil K000920958 Yes
Oct 20, 1989 Isejima, E.M. [CFCR5437], Brazil K000920981 Yes
Oct 20, 1989 Cavalcanti, T.B. [44665], Brazil K000920980 Yes
Jan 1, 1978 Glaziou [15914], Brazil K000920962 Yes
Hatschbach, G.G. [70437], Brazil K000920945 Yes
Sazima, M. [s.n.], Brazil K000920949 Yes
Heringer, E.P. [4155], Brazil K000920950 Yes
Calderon, C.E. [2721], Brazil K000920951 Yes
Delprete, P.G. [9591], Brazil K000920955 Yes
Prance, G.T. [16782], Brazil K000920972 Yes
Brooks, R.R. [480], Brazil K000920976 Yes
Burchell [9527], Brazil K000920968 Yes
Hatschbach, G.G. [41358], Brazil K000920969 Yes
Philcox, D. [3903], Brazil K000920964 Yes
Burchell [7386], Brazil K000920961 Yes
Heringer, E.P. [4058], Brazil K000920956 Yes
Heringer, E.P. [4866], Brazil K000920946 Yes
Burchell [6997], Brazil K000920967 Yes
Thomas, W.W. [4556], Brazil K000920973 Yes
Tibiriçá, Y.J.A. [107], Brazil K000920953 Yes
Brooks, R.R. [442], Brazil K000920977 Yes
Salles, A.E.H. [100], Brazil K000920957 Yes
Heringer, E.P. [4929], Brazil K000920979 Yes
Silva, R.M. [CFCR9758], Brazil K000920959 Yes
Hatschbach, G.G. [62277], Brazil K000920965 Yes
Coradin, L. [8475], Brazil K000920982 Yes
Guedes, M.L. [PCD1965], Brazil K000920966 Yes
Brooks, R.R. [TMEX487], Brazil K000920978 Yes
Pirani, J.R. [1590], Brazil K000920971 Yes
Hatschbach, G.G. [34716], Brazil K000920948 Yes
Coradin, L. [8476], Brazil K000920983 Yes
Heringer, E.P. [6714], Brazil K000920947 Yes
Lewis, G.P. [CFCR6685], Brazil K000920952 Yes
Heringer, E.P. [1449], Brazil K000920963 Yes
Saavedra, M.M. [690], Brazil K000920954 Yes
Gibbs, P. [2464], Brazil K000920960 Yes
Monteiro, R.F. [292], Brazil K000920975 Yes
Leoni, L.S. [583], Brazil K000920974 Yes
Zarucchi, J.L. [2832], Brazil K000920970 Yes

First published in Ann. Wiener Mus. Naturgesch. 2: 117 (1838)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 2: 176.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Comm. Leg. Gen.: 53 (1837) nom. conserv.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Comm. Leg. Gen.: 53 (1837), nom. conserv .

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Legumes of the World Online

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0