Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World. It is used as animal food and a medicine, has environmental uses and for food.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Annual. Culms decumbent; 20-100 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 3-25 cm long; 3-10 mm wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 2-12; digitate; unilateral; 6-22 cm long. Central inflorescence axis 0-5 cm long. Rhachis narrowly winged; angular; glabrous on surface, or with scattered hairs; scabrous on margins. Spikelet packing contiguous; 0.3 their length apart. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets pedicelled; 2 in the cluster; all alike, or heteromorphic (as to indumentum).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; acute; (2-)2.5-3.3(-3.7) mm long; falling entire.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; acute; (2-)2.5-3.3(-3.7) mm long; falling entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes two; dissimilar; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.2-0.4 mm long; 0.1 length of spikelet. Upper glume lanceolate; (0.5-)0.6-0.75 length of spikelet; membranous; 3 -veined. Upper glume surface pubescent; hairy between veins. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 7 -veined; with equidistant veins, or with unevenly spaced veins; puberulous, or pubescent, or setose, or villous; hairy between veins; eciliate on margins, or ciliate on margins; acute. Fertile lemma elliptic; 2-3.7 mm long; cartilaginous; much thinner on margins; grey, or dark brown; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma margins flat; covering most of palea; ciliate. Lemma apex acute. Palea cartilaginous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3.
Distribution
Europe: southeastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Soviet far east, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
Reference
Paniceae. FTEA.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Guiana Shield, Caribbean, Orinoquia. Elevation range: 0–3000 m a.s.l. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Bolívar, Boyacá, Caldas, Caquetá, Cauca, Cesar, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Guavia
Habit
Herb.
Conservation
National Red List of Colombia (2021): Potential LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, artificial - terrestrial.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 0 - 3000 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 3000 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual up to 100 cm high, often decumbent at the base and geniculately ascending; leaves broadly linear
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence of 2–12 digitate or subdigitate racemes, the axis up to 5 cm long in robust specimens; racemes stiff, 6–22 cm long, the spikelets in pairs and overlapping by 2/3 their length on a winged rhachis with triquetrous midrib
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets narrowly elliptic, 2.5–3.3(–3.7) mm long, sharply acute; lower glume a distinct triangular scale usually 0.2–0.4 mm long; upper glume (1/2–)2/3–3/4 the length of the spikelet, 3-nerved; lower lemma 7-nerved, the nerves smooth and evenly spaced or with a wide interspace flanking the midrib (sometimes the spikelets of a pair different), appressed-puberulous to silky-pubescent or rarely shortly villous, often with aciliate frill, sometimes one or both spikelets of a pair beset with glassy bristles; fruit ellipsoid, grey to light brown.
Distribution
S2, 3 throughout the tropics.
Vernacular
Caws cade (Somali)

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Annual, or perennial; short-lived; caespitose. Culms prostrate; slender; 20-50 cm long; rooting from lower nodes. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-2 mm long. Leaf-blades lanceolate (narrowly); 3-8 cm long; 2-5 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous; hairless except near base. Leaf-blade apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 3-9; digitate; erect; unilateral; 4-8 cm long. Rhachis narrowly winged; flattened; 0.5 mm wide; glabrous on surface; scaberulous on margins. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile and pedicelled; 2 in the cluster.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 2.2-2.8 mm long; falling entire.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 2.2-2.8 mm long; falling entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes two; dissimilar; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.2 mm long. Upper glume lanceolate; 0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; 3 -veined. Upper glume surface pilose; hairy between veins. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic; 1.1 length of fertile lemma; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 7 -veined; with unevenly spaced veins; pilose; hairy between veins; pubescent on margins; acute. Fertile lemma elliptic; cartilaginous; much thinner on margins; yellow to light green to grey; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma margins flat; covering most of palea. Lemma apex acute. Palea cartilaginous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3.
Distribution
Asia-temperate: China and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: Indo-China.
Reference
Paniceae. Fl China 2000.

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.

[UPB]
Use Gene Sources
Crop wild relatives which may possess beneficial traits of value in breeding programmes (State of the World's Plants 2016).

Native to:

Aldabra, Algeria, Angola, Ascension, Assam, Azores, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf States, Hainan, India, Inner Mongolia, Ivory Coast, Japan, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Korea, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malaya, Mali, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Rodrigues, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Xinjiang, Yemen, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alabama, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Austria, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, California, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Colombia, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East European Russia, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Italy, Jamaica, Jawa, Kansas, Kermadec Is., Leeward Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Marcus I., Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Nauru, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Territory, Ohio, Oklahoma, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Phoenix Is., Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Samoa, Sardegna, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Australia, South Carolina, Spain, St.Helena, Suriname, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Utah, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Virginia, Wake I., Wallis-Futuna Is., Western Australia, Windward Is.

Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2002 Clayton, W.D. [4943], Brazil K001075584
Jun 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [1687], Cameroon K000107849
Mar 28, 2000 Gardner [147], Brazil K001075564
Feb 28, 2000 Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001075566
Feb 28, 2000 Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001075604
Feb 28, 2000 Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001075567
Feb 3, 2000 Eiten, G. [6250], Brazil K001075571
May 1, 1998 Nascimento, M.S.B. [1391], Brazil K001075549
Apr 1, 1998 Nascimento, M.S.B. [1204], Brazil K001075550
Jan 1, 1990 Schimper [1616], Ethiopia K000281478 Unknown type material
Oct 1, 1977 Wight, R. [3032], India K000245359 lectotype
Apr 1, 1970 Carr, C.E. [11108] K000290284 isotype
Apr 1, 1970 Kerr, A.F.G. [2964], Thailand K000621155
Apr 1, 1970 Kerr, A.F.G. [6624], Thailand K000621156
Apr 1, 1970 Kerr, A.F.G. [10198], Thailand K000621159
Apr 1, 1970 Kerr, A.F.G. [16050], Thailand K000621160
Apr 1, 1970 Kerr, A.F.G. [19622], Thailand K000621161
Apr 1, 1970 Kerr, A.F.G. [21340], Thailand K000621162
Apr 1, 1970 Put [6], Thailand K000621164
Apr 1, 1970 Smitinand, T. [5954], Thailand K000688290
Apr 1, 1970 Larsen, K. [10002], Thailand K000688295
Apr 1, 1970 Smitinand, T. [5976], Thailand K000688292
Apr 1, 1970 Kerr, A.F.G. [6718], Thailand K000621157
Apr 1, 1970 Smitinand, T. [5976], Thailand K000688293
Apr 1, 1970 Kerr, A.F.G. [10198], Thailand K000621158
Apr 1, 1970 Kerr, A.F.G. [21340], Thailand K000621163
Apr 1, 1970 Larsen, K. [10510], Thailand K000688296
Apr 1, 1970 Smitinand, T. [5955], Thailand K000688291
Apr 1, 1970 Larsen, K. [8319], Thailand K000688294
Salzmann, P. [0], Bahia K000004531
Glocker, C. [225], Bahia K000004532
Middleton [0], Fernando de Noronha K000004555
Salzmann, P. [0], Bahia K000004530
Noblick, L.R. [3010], Bahia K000004523
Noblick, L.R. [2530], Bahia K000004525
Gardner [0], Pernambuco K000004521
Noblick, L.R. [2491], Bahia K000004526
Bona Nascimento, M.S. [551], Brazil K000004524
Moraes, J.C. [1923], Brazil K000004522
Harley, R.M. [17590], Bahia K000004527
Harley, R.M. [17132], Bahia K000004529
Harley, R.M. [17044], Bahia K000004528
Ridley, H.N. [0], Fernando de Noronha K000004554
Sellow [s.n.], Bahia K000004520 isotype
s.coll. [s.n.], India K000245362 Unknown type material
Schimper [2162], Ethiopia K000281479
Kotschy [429], Sudan K000281477 lectotype
van Beusekom, C.F. [3247], Thailand K000688289
Hinton, G.B. [2260], México State K000476275
Hinton, G.B. [1628a], México State K000476273
Silva, N.T. [1048], Brazil K001075544
Burchell [8663-2], Brazil K001075555
Carauta, J.P.P. [791], Brazil K001075576
Clayton, W.D. [4148], Brazil K001075578
Hoehne, W. [s.n.], Brazil K001075583
Smith, L.B. [13079], Brazil K001075588
Lindeman, J.C. [459], Brazil K001075562
Carauta, J.P.P. [791], Brazil K001075575
Dombrowski, L.T. [1409], Brazil K001075534
Lindeman, J.C. [7024], Brazil K001075552
Clayton, W.D. [4245], Brazil K001075558
Hatschbach, G. [24218], Brazil K001075543
Clayton, W.D. [4646], Brazil K001075581
Castellanos, A. [24870], Brazil K001075586
Eiten, G. [6033], Brazil K001075577
Clayton, W.D. [4574], Brazil K001075582
Dombrowski, L.T. [2408], Brazil K001075535
Ferreira, S. [35], Brazil K001075568
Regnell, A.F. [III1350], Brazil K001075540
Eiten, G. [2658], Brazil K001075574
Clayton, W.D. [4077], Brazil K001075580
Hatschbach, G. [48986], Brazil K001075551
Smith, L.B. [13250], Brazil K001075587
Imaguire, N. [73], Brazil K001075561
Hatschbach, G. [12288], Brazil K001075556
Spruce [1203], Brazil K001075538
Rambo, B. [40979], Brazil K001075537
Mueller, F. [69], Brazil K001075539
Castellanos, A. [24538], Brazil K001075569
Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil K001075541
Clayton, W.D. [4345], Brazil K001075559
Clayton, W.D. [4386], Brazil K001075542
Prance, G.T. [2549], Brazil K001075545
Burchell [3452], Brazil K001075554
Gardner [147], Brazil K001075565
Hinton, G.B. [4691], México State K000476274
Hoehne, W. [s.n.], Brazil K001075573
Irwin, H.S. [11310], Brazil K001075585
Castellanos, A. [25642], Brazil K001075572
Ferreira, S. [111], Brazil K001075570
Glaziou, A. [1244], Brazil K001075553
Clayton, W.D. [4271], Brazil K001075560
Smith, L.B. [13113], Brazil K001075589
Clayton, W.D. [4099], Brazil K001075579
Hatschbach, G. [13793], Brazil K001075557
Bommer, D.F.R. [57], Brazil K001075536
Hatschbach, G. [35112], Brazil K001075548
Wood, J.R.I. [4053], Colombia K001467582
Jan 1, 1904 Henry, A [1031], Taiwan Digitaria henryi K000885985 Unknown type material
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8682] Panicum ciliare K001131213
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8682], Nepal Panicum ciliare K001131210
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8682] Panicum ciliare K001131208
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8682] Panicum ciliare K001131212
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8682] Panicum ciliare K001131209
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8682], India Panicum ciliare K001131211

First published in Descr. Gramin.: 27 (1802)

Accepted by

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  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 1: 1-897. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
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  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
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  • Vázquez Pardo, F.M., Márquez García, F. & Blanco Salas, J. (2014). 084.- Digitaria ciliaris Folia Botanica Extremadurensis 8: 86-91.
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Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

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Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

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Flora of Somalia

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Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
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  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2019). Lista de especies vedadas por la resolución 213 de 1977. 8256 especies. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_plantaspriorizadas_2019
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  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467582
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0