Genus:
Amaranthus L.

Amaranthus spinosus L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America. It is used as animal food, a poison and a medicine, has social uses and for food.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
bledo, bledo blanco, bledo espinoso, bledo macho, cáncer de laguna, cáncer espinoso, escansé espinoso, rabo de gallo, siempreviva

[FTEA]

Amaranthaceae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, erect or slightly decumbent, up to ± 1.5 m.
Morphology Stem
Stem stout, sometimes reddish, usually branched, angular, glabrous or increasingly furnished above (especially in the inflorescence) with long multicellular flocculent hairs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves glabrous or thinly pilose on the lower surface of the primary nervation, long-petiolate (petioles up to ± 9 cm., sometimes longer than the lamina); lamina ovate to rhomboid-ovate, elliptic, lanceolate-oblong or lanceolate, ± 1.5–12 × 0.8–6 cm., subacute or more commonly blunt or retuse at the tip, with a distinct fine colourless mucro, cuneate or attenuate at the base; each leaf-axil bearing a pair of fine and slender to stout and compressed spines up to ± 2.5 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers green, in the lower part of the plant in axillary clusters 6–15 mm. in diameter; towards the ends of the stem and branches the clusters leafless and approximated to form simple or (the terminal at least) usually branched spikes up to ± 15 cm. long and 1 cm. wide; lower clusters entirely ♀ as are the lower flowers of the spikes; upper flowers of the spikes ♂, mostly for the apica 1/4–2/3 of each spike.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts and bracteoles deltoid-ovate, pale and membranous, with an erect reddish awn formed by the excurrent midrib; bracteoles shorter than, subequalling or a little exceeding the perianth, commonly smaller than the bracts.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth-segments 5, narrowly oblong or spathulate-oblong, 1.5–2.5 mm., obtuse or acute, mucronulate, frequently with a greenish dorsal vitta; ♂ broadly lanceolate or lanceolate-oblong, acute or acuminate, only the midrib green.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigmas (2–)3, flexuose or reflexed, 1–1.5 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule ovoid-urceolate with a short inflated beak below the style-base ± 1.5 mm., regularly or irregularly circumscissile or rarely indehiscent, the lid rugulose below the neck.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed 0.75–1 mm., compressed, black, shining, very faintly reticulate.
Figures
Fig. 4/10.
Habitat
Commonly as a weed of cultivation, waste ground and roadsides, also occurring in open grassland and in wet ground by swamps and along rivers; 0–1820 m.
Distribution
throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, occurring occasionally as a casual in temperate regions alsopresumed to be of American origin K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T6 T7 T8

[FWTA]

Amaranthaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology General Habit
Erect annual herb, 1–3 ft. high
Note
A common weed.

[FZ]

Amaranthaceae, C. C. Townsend. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, erect or slightly decumbent, up to c. 1.5 m. in height.
Morphology Stem
Stem stout, sometimes reddish, usually branched, angular, glabrous or increasingly furnished above (especially in the inflorescence) with short or longer, multicellular, flocculent hairs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves glabrous, or thinly pilose on the lower surface of the primary venation, long-petiolate (petioles up to c. 9 cm. long, sometimes longer than the lamina), lamina lanceolate-ovate to rhomboid-ovate, elliptic, lanceolate-oblong or lanceolate, c. 1.5–12 × 0.8–6 cm., subacute or more commonly blunt or retuse at the apex with a distinct, fine colourless mucro, cuneate or attenuate at the base; each leaf-axil bearing a pair of fine and slender to stout and compressed spines up to c. 2.5 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers green, in the lower parts of the plant in axillary clusters 6–15 mm. in diam., towards the ends of the stem and branches the clusters leafless and approximated to form simple or (the terminal at least) branched spikes up to c. 15 cm. long and 1 cm. wide. Lower flower clusters entirely female, as are the lower flowers of the spikes; upper flowers of spikes male, mostly for the apical 1/4–2/3 of each spike.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts and bracteoles deltoid-ovate, pale-membranous, with an erect, commonly reddish awn formed by the excurrent green midrib: bracteoles shorter than to a little exceeding the perianth, commonly smaller than the bracts.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth segments 5, those of the female flowers c. 1.5–2.5 mm. long, narrowly oblong or spathulate-oblong, obtuse or acute, mucronulate, frequently with a greenish dorsal vitta; those of the male flowers broadly lanceolate or lanceolate-oblong, acute or acuminate, only the midrib green.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigmas (2) 3, flexuose or reflexed, 1–1.5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule ovoid-urceolate with a short, inflated beak below the style-base, c. 1.5 mm. long, regularly or irregularly circumcissile or more rarely indehiscent, the lid rugulose below the beak.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed 0.75–1 mm. across, black, compressed, shining, very faintly reticulate.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean, Caribbean, Orinoquia, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–2000 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Atlántico, Bolívar, Caldas, Cauca, Chocó, Córdoba, Huila, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindío, Santander, Tolima, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Herb, Subshrub.
Conservation
National Red List of Colombia (2021): Potential LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Bledo, Bledo espinoso, Bledo macho, Husquilete, Husquilla

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2000 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, subarbusto
Conservation
No Evaluada

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Galápagos, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Andaman Is., Angola, Arkansas, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Congo, Connecticut, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, Florida, France, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hawaii, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Liberia, Louisiana, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Manitoba, Marianas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mauritius, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nebraska, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Jersey, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Norway, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Pakistan, Palestine, Pennsylvania, Philippines, Primorye, Queensland, Rhode I., Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., South Carolina, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Amaranthus spinosus L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Mar 1, 2011 Jidwin Jinaum [10], Sabah K000734021 No
Jan 1, 2008 Duaneh [273], Thailand K000512158 No
Nov 1, 2003 Pollard, B.J. [844], Cameroon K000197897 No
May 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [9410], Cameroon K000051115 No
Jan 1, 1953 Morton, J.K. [6735], Cameroon K000025556 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6894] K001126079 Yes
Nascimento, M.S.B. [438], Brazil K001207092 Yes
Eiten, G. [3617], Brazil K001207089 Yes
Silva, G.P. [2464], Brazil K001207090 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6894] K001126077 Yes
Gardner [3429], Brazil K001207082 Yes
Irwin, H.S. [26066], Brazil K001207094 Yes
Hepper, F.N. [2080], Cameroon K000025555 No
Maitland, T.D. [43b], Cameroon K000025553 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6894] K001126075 Yes
Prance, G.T. [7278], Brazil K001207095 Yes
Pires, J.M. [51026], Brazil K001207083 Yes
Eiten, G. [3470], Brazil K001207084 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6894], Bangladesh K001126078 Yes
Philcox, D. [3982], Brazil K001207097 Yes
Fotius [1412], Brazil K001207100 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6894] K001126081 Yes
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 6894] K001126080 Yes
da Silva, G.P. [2464], Brazil K001207088 Yes
Maitland, T.D. [0s.n100], Cameroon K000025552 No
Irwin, H.S. [29582], Brazil K001207098 Yes
Hage, J.L. [967], Brazil K001207093 Yes
Spruce, R. [s.n.], Peru K000202221 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6894], Myanmar K001126084 Yes
Nascimento, M.S.B. [25], Brazil K001207091 Yes
Harley, R.M. [21083], Brazil K001207102 Yes
Harley, R.M. [20516], Brazil K001207099 Yes
Burchell [10018], Brazil K001207081 Yes
Traill, J.W.H. [687], Brazil K001207080 Yes
Sanford, W.W. [5438], Cameroon K000025557 No
Handro, O. [s.n.], Brazil K001207086 Yes
Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001207096 Yes
Hutchinson, J. [117], Cameroon K000025554 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6894] K001126076 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6894], Myanmar K001126082 Yes
Pickersgill, B. [RU/72/225], Brazil K001207101 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6894], Myanmar K001126083 Yes
Thompson, S.A. [1500], Cameroon K000025558 No
Gehrt, A. [s.n.], Brazil K001207087 Yes
Kuhlmann, M. [1407], Brazil K001207085 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 991 (1753)

Accepted by

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