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Kigelia africana is an African tree, easily recognised due to the large sausage-shaped fruits hanging from its branches. The generic name Kigelia comes from the Mozambican name for sausage tree, 'kigeli-keia'. Sausage trees are sacred to many communities and are often protected when other forest trees are cut down. In Kenya, the Luo and Luhya people bury a fruit to symbolise the body of a lost person believed to be dead.

Kigelia africana (sausage tree)

[FWTA]

Bignoniaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
A medium-sized tree 20-50 ft. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers variable in colour, purplish-red, purple-yellow, orange, greenish-yellow, and sometimes spotted with darker reddish colours
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits like long sausages
Vernacular
The Sausage Tree

[FTEA]

Bignoniaceae, Sally Bidgood, Bernard Verdcourt, Kaj Vollesen. Cobaeaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

Type
Type: Senegal, Adanson 199A (P-JUSS 4991, holo.; microfiche!) (Note: * Several authors have suggested Thouin was the collector because Lamarck mentions him but Thouin was a gardener at the Jardin des Plantes in Paris and he never went to Africa; he was a friend of Adanson and possibly received material from him.)
Morphology General Habit
Shrub 2–3 m tall or tree often with wide spreading crown, 2.5–18(–24) m tall and possibly larger (but reports of up to 35 m incorrect).
Morphology General Bark
Bark usually grey, occasionally brown, smooth to rough or ridged, scaly or flaking.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite or ternate.
Morphology Leaves Leaflets
Leaflets thin to very coriaceous, (2–)3–8-jugate, oblong, elliptic, ovate or obovate, (6–)10–20(–30) × (4–)6–13(–16) cm, acute to cuneate or rounded, truncate, or emarginate at the base, entire to serrate (particularly sucker shoots), rounded, obtuse or acute to distinctly acuminate at the apex, glabrous to pubescent or tomentellous, smooth or often slightly to very scabrid with raised pale dots, peltate and punctate glands sometimes present; venation plane or sometimes raised or impressed, with 7–12 pairs of veins.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers said to smell unpleasant, in lax terminal hanging panicles 30–80(–150) cm long including peduncle up to 40 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts lanceolate, 1 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Individual cymes 1–3flowered.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels hooked, 1–4(–5) cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx campanulate, 2–5 cm long, ± 2–lipped, irregularly lobed, the lobes ± 1 cm long, tomentose to glabrous, with scattered glands.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla at first with tube yellow outside, turning orange or red and with dark red to blackish inside, 3–9 cm long, cylindrical at base for a very variable length; lobes yellow-green outside suffused with crimson, dark crimson inside, ± ovate, 3–4.5 cm long and wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits cylindrical, 30–90 cm long, 7.5–10 cm wide, tough and woody; stalks up to 50 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ovoid, ± 11 mm long, 7 mm wide and 4 mm thick.
Figures
Fig. 11, p. 45.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Tree, up to 20 m tall
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 12–30 cm long; petiole 3–6 cm long; leaflets 5–7, the terminal one with 1–4 cm long petiolule, the others sessile or subsessile; blade of leaflets 2–15 x 2–8 cm, oblong to elliptic or obovate, ± asymmetric at the base, mucronate to acuminate or truncate to retuse at the apex, with undulate to dentate margin, with 5–10 pairs of lateral nerves, puberulous to glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicles 0.3–1(–1.5) m long; pedicels 1–7 cm long, upcurved at the tip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 2.5–4.5 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 6–10 cm long, at first yellowish, later reddish to purplish, with darker streaks inside and outside; tube 2–4 cm long, abruptly widening upwards; lobes ± rounded, c. 3 cm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Filaments 3.5–5.5 cm long; anthers 0.5–1 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk c. 1 cm in diam., irregularly lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style up to 8 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit up to 80 x 13 cm, greyish-ochraceous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 10 x 7 mm.
Distribution
S1–3 widespread in tropical Africa.
Ecology
Altitude range 0–400 m.
Vernacular
Bakaroor, barde, berde, sag (Somali).
Note
This species is very variable in, for example, habit and leaf morphology.

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description
The sausage tree is sacred to many African communities and has a wide variety of uses in traditional and Western medicine, including commercially available skin lotions.

Kigelia africana is an African tree, easily recognised due to the large sausage-shaped fruits hanging from its branches. The generic name Kigelia comes from the Mozambican name for sausage tree, 'kigeli-keia'. Sausage trees are sacred to many communities and are often protected when other forest trees are cut down. In Kenya, the Luo and Luhya people bury a fruit to symbolise the body of a lost person believed to be dead.

The flowers only open at night and are pollinated by bats and hawk-moths. They are dark red, which is unusual for a bat-pollinated species (bats are normally attracted to white flowers), but the strong unpleasant smell of the flowers is thought to attract bats.

Every part of the tree is used in herbal medicines (eg for digestive and respiratory disorders, and to treat infections and wounds). The sausage tree is used in a variety of commercial applications to treat skin complaints. Research into its anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-tumour activity is ongoing.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

The sausage tree is found across sub-Saharan tropical Africa and as far south as South Africa. It is cultivated in other tropical countries and is used as an ornamental tree in Australia, the USA and parts of South-East Asia.

Description

Kigelia africana is a tree, 2.5-18 m tall, or sometimes a shrub 2-3 m tall. The bark is smooth and grey-brown in colour. The leaves are in groups of three at the ends of the branches and are 10-20 cm long with 3-8 leaflets. The inflorescence is a panicle, 30-80 cm long. The tubular flowers are dark red with yellow veins, and have an unpleasant smell. The fruits are sausage-shaped, 30-90 cm long and 7.5-10 cm in diameter.

The sausage tree is very variable in habit and leaf morphology. Trees growing in forests have larger leaflets than trees growing in open areas. It was once thought that there were ten different species of Kigelia , but botanists now recognise only one. In East Africa two subspecies are recognised, K. africana subsp. africana growing in grasslands and woodlands and K. africana subsp. moosa in tropical forests.

Multiple names

A comprehensive collation of data on sausage tree has been made by Kew's Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL).

Apart from detailed information on uses throughout Africa, the SEPASAL database (available online) also records over 400 vernacular names by which the sausage tree is known - an indication of the tree's importance and value to communities throughout its geographic range.

Threats and conservation

The sausage tree is widespread across tropical Africa. It is a sacred tree for many communities and is usually protected on farm lands when other tree species are cut down. In Malawi, Kigelia africana is now protected after many trees were cut down to make canoes.

Uses

Kigelia africana is an important tree for many people and has a wide range of uses.

Both ripe and unripe fruits are poisonous to humans but the fruits can be dried and fermented, and used along with the bark to enhance the flavour of traditional beers. The seeds are sometimes roasted and eaten in times of food shortage.  The wood makes good quality timber for fences, planking, boxes and canoes.

Kigelia africana is a suitable tree for planting to stabilise riverbanks, while its broad canopy makes it a good shade tree in the open savanna. It is, however, not advisable to park a vehicle or to sit beneath a fruiting tree - the 'sausages' (fruits) can weigh up to 12 kg and can cause considerable damage when they fall!

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

Two collections of sausage tree seeds are held in Kew's Millennium Seed Bank based at Wakehurst in West Sussex.

For further information on Kigelia africana seeds see Kew's Seed Information Database

Sausage tree at Kew

The sausage tree can be seen growing in the Palm House and the Princess of Wales Conservatory.

Dried and spirit-preserved specimens of Kigelia africana are held in the Herbarium, one of the behind-the-scenes areas of Kew. Details, including images, of some of these specimens can be seen on-line in the Herbarium Catalogue.

Bark, fruits, seeds and wood from K. africana are also held in the Economic Botany Collection. These specimens are made available to researchers from around the world by appointment.

Ecology
Riverine forest, wooded grassland, savanna and forest margins.
Conservation
Least Concern (LC) in the Red List of South African Plants.
Hazards

Both ripe and unripe fruits are toxic to humans and can also do considerable damage if they fall on vehicles or unsuspecting humans.

[FZ]

Bignoniaceae, M. A. Diniz. Flora Zambesiaca 8:3. 1988

Morphology General Habit
Medium or large sized tree up to 25 m. tall.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3, imparipinnate, crowded towards the tops of the branches; leaflets (1) 2–5-jugate, sessile or subsessile, except the terminal ones with petiolule (0.7)1–4(6.5) cm., long; leaflet lamina 3.5–17.5 (22.5) x 2.5–11 cm., ovate elliptic, obovate to rounded, apex obtuse, broadly tapering to rounded or retuse ana not so often apiculate, base rounded to cuneate, slightly to profoundly asymmetric except in the terminal leaflet which is asymmetric, glabrous to more or less hairy in both surfaces sometimes more roughly hairy in the superior one, papyraceous to coriaceous, margins entire, serrate or toothed and sometimes conspicously wavy; lateral nerves (4)6–13 pairs impressed above, prominent below, venation laxly reticulate; petiole (2)3.5–14(16) cm. long; rhachis 3–25 (29) cm. long, sulcate above, terete below.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in pendulous very lax, terminal panicles, 30–100 (150) cm. long, longly pedunculate; pedicels 1–11 (13.5) cm. long, upcurved at the tip; bracts small lanceolate caducous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx shortly tubular to campanulate, (1.7)2–4.3 cm. long, irregularly 4–5 lobed with the lobes up to 1 cm. long, ribbed, glabrous to sparsely puberlous outside, sometimes with irregularly scattered small glands.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla large, 6–12 cm. long, widely cup-shaped, at first yellowish, later becoming reddish to purplish, streaked darker inside and outside, glabrous except sometimes at the point where the filaments become free; limb bilabiate, the superior lip bilobed, the lower one 3-lobed and recurved, lobes more or less rounded; corolla tube cylindrical at the base and suddenly widening and incurving upwards.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamen-filament 3.5–6.5 cm. long, adnate up to 1–2.5 cm. from the base of the corolla tube; anthers 7–13 mm. long; staminode rather large.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk c. 1 cm. in diam. 2–3 mm. high, fleshy, irregularly lobed, sometimes almost truncate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 8–15 mm. long, cylindrical; style 4–7(8) cm. long, filiform.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit sausage-shaped up to 1 m. long and 18 cm. in diam., pendulous from a long peduncle, greyish-brown, lenticellate in the youth, massive, wood-walled, indehiscent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 10 x 7 mm. numerous, wingless, embedded in a fibrous pulp; testa coriaceous; cotyledons folded.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Árbol

[KSP]
Use
Food, medicine, timber.

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Ecuador, Mexico Southwest

English
Sausage tree

Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Nov 1, 2008 Onana, J.-M. [3607], Cameroon K000580298
Jan 1, 2008 Etuge, M. [2004], Cameroon K000437530
Jan 1, 2008 Etuge, M. [2004], Cameroon K000436152
Oct 1, 2005 Cheek, M. [11669], Cameroon K000338410
Dec 1, 2003 Ghogue, J.-P. [1035], Cameroon K000746018
Dec 1, 2003 Zapfack, L. [2004], Cameroon K000746017
Jul 1, 2001 Elad, M. [111], Cameroon K000108473
Jul 1, 2001 Groves, M. [25], Cameroon K000108474
Jul 1, 2001 Ghogue, J.-P. [76], Cameroon K000108465
Jul 1, 2001 Kenfack, D. [251], Cameroon K000108476
Jul 1, 2001 Cable, S. [2796], Cameroon K000108471
Jul 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [2701], Cameroon K000108470
Jul 1, 2001 Lane, P. [295], Cameroon K000108472
Jul 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [8882], Cameroon K000108463
May 1, 1999 Onana, J.-M. [632], Cameroon K000339225
Jan 1, 1999 Pollard, B.J. [75], Cameroon K000339224
Jan 1, 1992 Wheatley, J.I. [232], Cameroon K000518908
Jan 1, 1992 Wheatley, J.I. [232], Cameroon K000518925
Jan 1, 1990 Manning, S.D. [499], Cameroon K000029052
Jan 1, 1987 Manning, S.D. [588], Cameroon K000029053
Jul 1, 1983 Welwitsch. [489], Angola K000430450 Unknown type material
Jul 1, 1983 Welwitsch. [489], Angola K000430451 Unknown type material
Jul 1, 1983 Welwitsch. [489], Angola K000430452 Unknown type material
May 1, 1983 Allen, C.E.F. [30], Zimbabwe K000430449 syntype
Jan 1, 1965 Grens, J. [289], Botswana K000489226
Jan 1, 1960 Hepper, F.N. [1878], Cameroon K000029047
Jan 1, 1960 Binuyo, A. [FHI 35083], Cameroon K000029043
Jan 1, 1960 Binuyo, A. [FHI 35083], Cameroon K000029044
Jan 1, 1960 Binuyo, A. [FHI 35083], Cameroon K000029045
Jan 1, 1960 Hepper, F.N. [1878], Cameroon K000029046
Troupin, G. [4196], Congo 25240.000
Faulkner, H. [3030] 25772.000
Sabatier, M. [s.n.] K000430380
Sabatier, M. [s.n.] K000430381
Vogel [88], Ghana K000430396 Unknown type material
Chevalier, A. [3315], Burkina Faso K000386442
Chevalier, A. [1208], Mali K000386444
Biegel, H. [3848], Botswana K000489224
Thompson, S.A. [1396], Cameroon K000029048
Chevalier, A. [3313], Mali K000386443
Elffers, R. [109], Botswana K000489227
Harvey, Y.B. [151], Cameroon K000338857
Chevalier, A. [3314], Burkina Faso K000386445
Thompson, S.A. [1396], Cameroon K000029049
Brown, R.C. [7743], Botswana K000511039
Chevalier, A. [3315], Burkina Faso K000386441
Thomas, D.W. [2796], Cameroon K000029050
Brunt, M.A. [1233], Cameroon K000029042
Nemba, J. [41], Cameroon K000029051
Chevalier, A. [3314], Burkina Faso K000386446
Smith, P.A. [1158], Botswana K000489223
Gossweiler, J. [1101], Angola K001009735
Laferrere, M. [84], Burkina Faso K000386447
Story, R. [4738], Botswana K000489228
Gossweiler, J. [1101], Angola K001009734
Grens, J. [373], Botswana K000489225

First published in W.J.Hooker, Niger Fl.: 463 (1849)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Curtis, B. & Mannheimer, C. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia: 1-688. The National Botanical Research Institute, Windhoek.
  • Diniz, M.A. (1988). 124. Bignoniaceae Flora Zambesiaca 8(3): 61-85. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Gentry, A. H. (1985). Bignoniaceae Flore du Gabon 27: 19-56. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
  • Liben, L. (1977). Bignoniaceae Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaïre - Rwanda - Burundi): 1-39. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Meise.
  • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Bignoniaceae Southen Africa Botany Diversity Network Reports 37.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.

Not accepted by

  • Burger, W. & Gentry, A.H. (2000). Bignoniaceae Fieldiana Botany New Series, n.s., 41: 77-160. Field Museum of Natural History. [Cited as Kigelia pinnata.]
  • Smithies, S.I. (2003). Bignoniceae, In: Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 312-313. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria. [Cited as Kigelia africana.]

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Kew Species Profiles

  • Bidgood, S., Verdcourt, B. & Vollesen, K. (2006). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Bignoniaceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Burkill, H.M. (1985). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa, Volume 1. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Grace, O. & Davis, S.D. (2002). Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. In Oyen, l.P.A. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (eds), Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Precursor. PROTA Programme, Wageningen, the Netherlands. Pp. 98-102.
  • Harris, B. & Baker, H. (1958). Pollination in Kigelia africana. J. W. Afr. Sci. Assn. Vol. 4: No. 1.
  • Launert, G., Bell, E. & Goncalves, M. (eds) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca, Volume 8, Part 3. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Maundu, P. & Tengas, B. (2005). Useful Trees and Shrubs for Kenya. World Agroforestry Centre.
  • Ramundo, D. (2009). Red List of South African Plants, Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.
  • Roodt, V. (1993). The Shell Guide to the Common Trees of the Okavango Delta and Moremi Game Reserve. Shell, Gabarone.

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Aubrév. Fl. For. C. Iv. ed. 2, 3: 242, t. 231
  • Chev. Bot. 487
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 536
  • Fl. For. Soud.-Guin. 484, t. 111
  • Sillans in Not. Syst. 14: 323 (1853)
  • in Fl. Nigrit. 463 (1849)
  • incl. var. aethiopica (Decne.) Aubrév. ex Sillans and var. elliptica (Sprague) R. Sillans in Not. Syst. 14: 324 (1853).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Curtis, B. & Mannheimer, C. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia: 1-688. The National Botanical Research Institute, Windhoek.
  • Diniz, M.A. (1990). Bignoniaceae Flora de Moçambique 120: 1-35. Instituto de Investigaçao Científuca Tropical.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Gentry, A.H. (1977). Bignoniaceae Flora of Ecuador 7: 1-172. Botanical Institute, University of Göteborg, Riksmuseum, Stockholm.
  • Gentry, A.H. (1984). Bignoniacées Flore du Cameroun 27: 26-61. Ministère de l'enseignement supérieur et de la recherche scientifique (Mesres), Yaoundé.
  • Hutchinson, J. & Dalziel, J.M. (1931). Bignoniaceae Flora of West Tropical Africa 2(1): 237-242.
  • Liben, L. (1977). Bignoniaceae Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaïre - Rwanda - Burundi): 1-39. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Meise.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Smithies, S.I. (2003). Bignoniceae, In: Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 312-313. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, (2000) Author: by M. Tardelli & L. Settesoldi [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Acta Trop. Suppl. 8: 148 (1964)
  • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 381, t. 485 (1987)
  • F.T.A. 4(2): 536 (1906)
  • F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 2: 385, fig. 294 (1963)
  • F.Z. 8(3): 83, t. 18 (1988)
  • Fl. Cameroun 27: 32, t. 9 (1984)
  • Fl. Gabon 27: 27, t. 5 (1985)
  • Fl. Som. 3: 303, fig. 209 (2006).
  • Hamilton, Uganda Forest Trees: 203 (1981)
  • K.T.S.L.: 591, fig., map (1994)
  • Liben, F.A.C. Bignon.: 4, t. 1 (1977)
  • Niger Fl.: 463 (1849)
  • Opera Bot.: 59: 77 (1980)
  • Palgrave, Trees S. Afr.: 833 (1981)
  • Palmer & Pitman, Trees S. Afr. 3: 2011, figs. & photos. (1973)
  • Prodr. Fl. SW. Afr. 128: 3 (1967)
  • T.T.C.L.: 71 (1949)

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
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Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Species Profiles
Kew Species Profiles
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Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/