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Sweet potato is a member of the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae) and is therefore not closely related to potato (Solanum tuberosum), which is a member of Solanaceae. Sometimes known by the common name yam, sweet potato should not be confused with Dioscorea species, which are also known as yams but belong to a different plant family (Dioscoreaceae). 

Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description

Sweet potato is a member of the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae) and is therefore not closely related to potato (Solanum tuberosum), which is a member of Solanaceae. Sometimes known by the common name yam, sweet potato should not be confused with Dioscorea species, which are also known as yams but belong to a different plant family (Dioscoreaceae). 

Long cultivated for its edible root tubers, sweet potato is an important carbohydrate source in the tropics, especially in Central America and New Guinea.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Sweet potato is thought to have originated in Central America or northwestern South America. Remains of sweet potato tubers, dating to about 8,080 BC, have been found in a cave in Peru.

Sweet potato is now widely cultivated in tropical regions and temperate regions with hot summers.

Description

Overview: Perennial, herbaceous climber with tuberous roots.

Leaves: Up to 10 cm long, heart- or egg-shaped, un-lobed or divided into three lobes, sometimes with toothed margins.

Flowers: Petals lavender to pale purple or white, forming a trumpet shape up to 7 cm long, often darker in colour inside the tube. Flowers absent in some clones.

Fruits: Dry, dehiscent, ovoid capsule. Rarely produced.

Uses

Sweet potato is considered to be the world's fifth most important root crop. The edible tubers are consumed boiled, baked or fried. They are processed into chips (sweet potato fries) and crisps (chips). They are also a source of starch, one use of which is to make dang myun noodles in Korea. Sweet potato leaves are consumed as a vegetable in Southeast Asia and New Guinea.

Sweet potato is used as a source of alcohol and is fermented to make a Japanese spirit known as imo-jōchū . Sweet potato is also used as animal-fodder.

Natural fibres from Ipomoea batatas are used in biodegradable plastic (polylactic acid bioplastic) used in the manufacture of Toyota cars.

Some sweet potato cultivars are grown as ornamentals for their attractive flowers and foliage. For example Ipomoea batatas 'Blackie' has purple foliage and is popular in hanging baskets.

This species at Kew

Pressed and dried specimens of Ipomoea batatas are held in Kew's Herbarium where they are available to researchers by appointment.

Details, including images, of some of these specimens can be seen online in Kew's Herbarium Catalogue.

Specimens of sweet potato tubers, as well as starch ('arrowroot') obtained from it, are held in Kew's Economic Botany Collection in the Sir Joseph Banks Building, where they are available to researchers by appointment.

Distribution
Peru
Ecology
Unknown.
Conservation
Widespread in cultivation.
Hazards

None known.

[FWTA]

Convolvulaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Trailing and climbing, nearly glabrous from tuberous root
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers campanulate-funnel-shaped with whitish or pink-tinged limb and red-purple centre 11/2-2 in. long.
Vernacular
The sweet potato.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Robust herb with underground tubers; stems prostrate or ascending, often rooting at the nodes, glabrous or almost so
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades 4–14 x 4–16 cm, truncate or cordate at the base, entire or palmately ± deeply 3–5-lobed; petiole 4–20 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes 1–several-flowered; peduncle 3–18 cm long; pedicels 3–12 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals oblong to elliptic-oblong, 7–12 x 3–5 mm, acute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla violet and white, 3–4.7 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule ovoid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds glabrous.
Distribution
Occasionally cultivated at least in N1, S2 and S3 probably of South American origin, but now distributed throughout the tropics.
Vernacular
Batata (Somali); sweet potato (English).

[FTEA]

Convolvulaceae, B. Verdcourt (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Herb with underground, fusiform edible tubers.
Morphology Stem
Stems prostrate, ascending or rarely twining, often rooting at the nodes, glabrous or very slightly pubescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blade triangular, 4–14 cm. long, 4–16 cm. wide, truncate or cordate at the base, entire or palmately shallowly to very deeply 3–5-lobed; lobes triangular to lanceolate, glabrous or slightly pubescent; petiole4–20 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary; peduncle 3–18 cm. long, 1–several-flowered; pedicels 3–12 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals subequal, the inner somewhat longer, oblong to elliptic-oblong, 7–12 mm. long, 3–5 mm. wide, acute and distinctly mucronate, subcoriaceous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla violet or lilac, white above, campanulate, 3–4.7 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule ovoid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds glabrous.
Habitat
The Sweet Potato is cultivated in areas of moderate rainfall or in wet places at low and medium altitudes up to 1800 m. Above this level, up to 2200 m. and beyond, it is cultivated as a forage crop
Distribution
K P T U Z widely cultivated in all suitable areas in the territoriesdistributed throughout all tropical areasprobably originated in South America

[KBu]

Wood, J.R.I., Carine, M.A., Harris, D. et al. 2015. Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in Bolivia. Kew Bulletin 70: 31. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-015-9592-7

Conservation
Not evaluated (NE). Most records are of cultivated plants or escapes from cultivation.
Ecology
This species is widely cultivated throughout the tropics but its exact origin is unknown. It is often supposed to have originated in Mexico, although we have seen occasional specimens of apparently wild, fertile plants from various countries in tropical America including Colombia, Panama and Venezuela. In Bolivia Ipomoea batatas is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in the Yungas of La Paz and parts of the Beni but more rarely further south and we have no confirmed records of cultivated plants from Tarija and Chuquisaca Departments although it is doubtless cultivated occasionally in these regions. Outside cultivation plants are usually found in derelict fields and on roadsides near cultivation and houses.
Morphology General Habit
Creeping perennial herb rooting from the stem and developing root tubers, stems extending to cover several metres, glabrous to coarsely pilose
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate, very variable in form but usually rather large, 3 – 15 × 5 – 12 cm, ovate or shallowly to deeply 3 – 5-lobed, cordate, shortly acuminate, both surfaces glabrous to coarsely pilose, abaxially somewhat glaucous and with prominent veins; petioles usually rather long, 4 – 15 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence of long-pedunculate, axillary, dense umbellate cymes; peduncles 5 – 30 cm long, stout; bracteoles filiform, c. 2 mm long, caducous; secondary peduncles 5 – 15 mm; pedicels very short, 5 – 10 mm long; sepals 7 – 11 mm, unequal, margins often but not always ciliate, outer shorter than inner, oblong-elliptic to oblong-oblanceolate, abruptly mucronate with a hair point c. 2 mm long, prominently 1 – 5-veined, the inner sepals broadly elliptic, rounded and mucronate; corolla 4 – 4.5 cm, pink, often with a dark centre, glabrous; ovary pubescent (rarely glabrous), rarely fertile so capsule and seeds usually absent
Note
It has been found in flower throughout the year.

Although it is not possible to distinguish cultivated from escaped populations from the cited records there are a number of surprising inferences from the list. In the first place there are no collections from the south of the country. This may indicate that Ipomoea batatas is rarely grown there or simply that botanists have not collected it, something which is surely the case in Inquisivi Province in La Paz and Moxos and other provinces in the Beni. Another curiosity is that many of the vouchers are old, perhaps suggesting I. batatas was more widely cultivated in the past than it is today.Plants are usually readily identified in the field because of their root tubers and perennial creeping habit, the stems rooting at the nodes. Herbarium specimens are distinguished by the strongly and usually abruptly mucronate sepals with a distinct hair point and a pronounced central vein with 2 – 4 less prominent lateral veins. The sepals are usually ciliate and the flowers characteristically clustered at the apex of a long peduncle. Most specimens collected in Bolivia have 3-lobed leaves.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa y cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2200 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Trepadora
Conservation
No Evaluada

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Distribution
Native and cultivated in Colombia.
Ecology
Alt. 0 - 2200 m.
Morphology General Habit
Climbing plant.

[UNAL]
Vernacular
Apichu, Batata, Batatillo, Camote, Chaco, Cumara, Papa dulce

[FZ]

Convolvulaceae, Maria Leonor Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 8:1. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Perennial plant herbaceous, with underground, fusiform to ellipsoid, yellow or reddish, edible tubers.
Morphology Stem
Stems prostrate, ascending or rarely twining, often rooting at the nodes, containing a milky juice, glabrous or very slightly pubescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf lamina triangular to broadly ovate in outline, 4–10×4–13 cm., entire or palmately shallowly to very deeply 3–7-lobed, truncate or cordate at the base; lobes triangular, lanceolate to linear-oblong, glabrous or slightly pubescent; petiole 3·5–15 cm. long, glabrous or hairy.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence axillary, cymosely 1 to several-flowered; peduncle stout, 3–15 cm. long, glabrous or hairy, bracteoles minute, narrow, acute, 2–3 mm. long, early deciduous; pedicels 3–12 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals subequal, subcoriaceous, 7–10 mm. long; outer ones oblong or elliptic-oblong; inner ones elliptic-oblong or ovate oblong, somewhat longer, all glabrous or pilose on the back and fimbriate, acute or subacute, distinctly mucronate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla bell-shaped, pale-mauve, white above, 3–4·5 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule ovoid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds glabrous.

[KSP]
Use
Food, livestock-feed, ornamental.

[FSOM]
Use
Cultivated for its edible tubers

[UPB]
Use Food
'Roots' - edible (Granados-Tochoy et al. 2007, Pérez Arbeláez 1978).
Use Gene Sources
Crop wild relatives which may possess beneficial traits of value in breeding programmes (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Venezuela

Introduced into:

Alabama, Algeria, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Azores, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chile North, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Easter Is., Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Kirgizstan, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Line Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New York, New Zealand North, Nigeria, Niue, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Wake I., Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Sweet potato
Spanish
Patata blanca, batata, apichu, camote, batatillo, cumara, papa dulce, chaco, batata.

Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Feb 10, 2011 Cook [162], Indonesia K000605980
Mar 1, 2008 Conn, B. et al. [5018], Papua New Guinea K000224890
Mar 1, 2008 Jones [133], Sabah K000224891
Jun 1, 2006 Cheek, M. [11107], Cameroon K000339791
Jul 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [1607], Cameroon K000008693
Jul 1, 2003 Cable, S. [1226], Cameroon K000008692
Aug 14, 1996 Derleth, P. [29], Madagascar K000384512
Mar 1, 1996 Williams, S. [152], Cameroon K000008691
Jan 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [5520], Cameroon K000381551
Jan 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [5924], Cameroon K000381550
Jan 1, 1993 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [14], Cameroon K000381558
Jan 1, 1993 Wheatley, J.I. [663], Cameroon K000381559
Jan 1, 1987 Balée, W.L. [805], Brazil K000944409
Jan 1, 1985 s.coll. [1144], Jamaica K000612710
Jan 1, 1985 s.coll. [1143], Jamaica K000612711
Jan 1, 1978 Ongley, J.C. [P21788], Brazil K000944403
Jan 1, 1978 Prance, G.T. [18015], Brazil K000944408
Jan 1, 1977 Prance, G.T. [4264], Brazil K000944405
Jan 1, 1977 Prance, G.T. [10333], Brazil K000944404
Nov 1, 1952 Burchell [3613], Brazil K000944406
Oct 21, 1897 Forsyth Major [733], Madagascar K000384515
Parker, G.W. [s.n.], Madagascar K000384514
Balée, W.L. [893], Brazil K000944410
Baron, R. [2717], Madagascar K000384511
s.coll. [1771], Brazil K000944407
Baron, R. [1040], Madagascar K000384513
Zappi, D.C. [1311], Mato Grosso K000578970
Henicka, G.S. [22], Mato Grosso K000578255
Schipp, W.A. [1236], Honduras Ipomoea confertiflora K000612768
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1356] Convolvulus batatas K001112874
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1356] Convolvulus batatas K001112875

First published in Tabl. Encycl. 1: 465 (1793)

Accepted by

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  • McDonald, Andrew (1994). Convolvulaceae Flora de Veracruz 77: 1-133. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones sobre Recursos Bióticos, Xalapa, Veracruz.
  • McPherson, G. [w/ D.F. Austin] in Braco, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Convolvulaceae Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru: 365-374. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Meisner, C.F. in Martius, C.F.P.von & auct. suc. (eds.) (1869). Convolvulaceae Flora Brasiliensis 7: 199-370.
  • Merrill, E.D. (1921). A review of the new species of plants proposed by N.L. Burman in his Flora Indica. Philippine Journal of Science 19: 329-388.
  • Mill, R.R. (1999). Fl. Bhutan Convolvulaceae Flora of Bhutan 2(2): 834-862. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • O'Donell, C.A. (1959). Convolvuloideas de Uruguay Lilloa 29: 349-376. Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Instituto 'Miguel Lillo'.
  • Ooststroom, S.J. van & R.D. Hoogland (1953). Convolvulaceae Flora Malesiana 4: 388-512. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Press, J.R., K.K. Shrestha, & D.A. Sutton (2012). Nepal Cklist. Convolvulaceae Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal - online Natural History Museum et al.
  • Sachet, M.-H. (1975). Fl. Marquesas Convolvulaceae Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 23: 27-34.
  • Sachet, M.-H. (1983). CNV in Takapoto atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago: terrestrial vegetation and flora Atoll Research Bulletin 277: 1.
  • Shinners, L. in Correll, D.S. & M.C Johnston (1970). Convolvulaceae Manual of the vascular plants of Texas: 1241-1261. Texas Research Foundation.
  • Siddiqi, M.A. in Jafri, S.M.H. & El-Gadi, A. (eds.) (1977). Convolvulaceae Flora of Libya 45: 1-27. Al-Faateh University, Tripoli.
  • Smith, A.C. in Smith, A.C. (1991). Fl. Vitiensis Nova Convolvulaceae Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 41-69. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Spaulding, D. in Spaulding, D. (2013). Convolvulaceae Checklist of Alabama's vascular flora: 137-139.
  • St. John, H. in St. John, H. (1988). Census of the flora of the Gambier Island, Polynesia CNV Pacific Plant Studies 43: 1. privately published by author.
  • Standley, P. C. (1938). Convolvulaceae Publications of Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series 18(3): 960-974.
  • Standley, P.C. & Williams, L.O. (1970). Convolvulaceae Fieldiana Botany New Series 24 (9: 1,2): 4-85. Field Museum of Natural History.
  • Staples, G. (2018). Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêt-Nam 36: 1-406. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Staples, G. (with P. Traiperm) (2010). Convolvulaceae Flora of Thailand 10: 330-468. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Stoddart, D.R. (1969). Reconnaissance geomorphology of Rangiroa Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago Atoll Research Bulletin 125: 1.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1977). Convolvulaceae Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 219: 97-98, 189.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Thulin, M. et al. in Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Convolvulaceae Flora of Somalia 3: 221-258. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Tisserant, P. Ch. (1950). Catalogue de la flora de l'Oubangui-Chari Mémoires de l'Institut d'Études Centrafricaines 2: 1-166.
  • Turland, N.J. in Press, J.R. & Short, M.J. (eds.) (1994). Convolvulaceae Flora of Madeira: 266-271. HMSO.
  • Valentine, D.H. et al. in Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Convolvulaceae Flora Europaea 3: 74-83. Cambridge University Press.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-161.
  • Wagner, W.L. & D.H. Lorence in Wagner, W. L. & D. H. Lorence. (2002-ongoing). Fl. Marquesas CNV - April 2012 2002-. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website. Smithsonian Institution & National Tropical Bot. Garden.
  • Webb, C.J., W.R. Sykes, & P.J. Garnock-Jones (1988). Fl. New Zealand Convolvulaceae - naturalised Flora of New Zealand 4: 547-560+1289. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Welsh, S.L. in Welsh, S.L. (1998). Fl. Societensis Convolvulaceae Flora Societensis: 83-88. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542. New York Botanical Garden.
  • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vascular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
  • Whistler, W.A. (1983). Fl. Veget. Swains Island Convolvulaceae Atoll Research Bulletin 262: 9-10.
  • Wilder, G.P. (1931). Fl. Rarotonga Convolvulaceae Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 86: 1-113.
  • Wood, J.R.I. in Wood, J.R.I. (1997). Handb. Yemen Fl. Convolvulaceae A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 230-236. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wood, J.R.I., Carine, M.A., Harris, D., Wilkin, P., Williams, B. & Scotland, R.W. (2015). Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in Bolivia Kew Bulletin 70(31): 1-124.
  • Wood, J.R.I., Muñoz-Rodríguez P., Williams, B.R.M., Scotland, R.W. (2020). A foundation monograph of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the New World PhytoKeys 143: 1-823.
  • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1943). The Flora of Niue Island: Convolvulaceae Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 178: 98-99.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • Zizka, G. in Zizka, G. (1991). Flw. Pl. Easter Island Convolvulaceae Flowering Plants of Easter Island 3: 39-41. Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.

Not accepted by

  • Standley, P. C. (1938). Convolvulaceae Publications of Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series 18(3): 960-974. [Cited as Ipomoea purpusi.]

Literature

Kew Bulletin

  • Lamarck 1793: 465.

Kew Species Profiles

  • Huxley, A., Griffiths, M. & Levy, M. (eds) (1999). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. Volume 2 (D to K). Macmillan Reference, London.
  • Kiple, K. F. & Ornelas, K. C. (eds) (2000). The Cambridge World History of Food, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Mabberley, D. J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-book: a Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classification and Uses. 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Vaughan, J. G. & Geissler, C. A. (2009). The New Oxford Book of Food Plants. 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Chev. Bot. 453
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 175
  • Meeuse in Bothalia 6: 746 (1958).
  • Tabl. Encycl. 465 (1791)
  • van Ooststr. in Blumea 3: 512 (1940)

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Crop wild relative Inventory https://www.cwrdiversity.org/checklist/ in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Granados-Tochoy, J. C., Lastra-Romero, C. A., Correa-Casas, M., & Monsalve, D. (2007). Estudio florístico de la agrobiodiversidad del municipio de Garagoa (Valle de Tenza, Boyacá, Colombia). Instituto Alexander von Humboldt, Bogotá.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Pérez-Arbeláez, E. (1996). Plantas útiles de Colombia: edición aumentada, 4a edición. Fondo FEN Colombia.
  • Toscano-González, J. Y. (2006). Uso tradicional de plantas medicinales en la vereda San Isidro, municipio de San José de Pare-Boyacá: Un estudio preliminar usando técnicas cuantitativas. Acta Biológica Colombiana, 11(2), 137-146.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Adams, C.D. in Adams, C.D. (1972). Flowering Plants of Jamaica: 601-614. University of the West Indies, Mona.
  • Alfarhan, A. & Thomas, J. in Chaudhary, S.A. (2001). Saudi Arabian CNV + CUS Flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 2(2): 156-222. Ministry of Agriculture & Water, Riyadh.
  • Andrews, F.W. in Andrews, F.W. (1956). Convolvulaceae The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 102-125. T.Buncle & co., LTD., Arbroath, Scotland.
  • Austin, D.F. & Cavalcante, P.B. (1982). Convolvuláceas da Amazônia Publicações Avulsas do Museo Goeldi 36: 1-134.
  • Austin, D.F. & Huáman, Z. (1996). A synopsis of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the Americas Taxon 45: 3-38.
  • Austin, D.F. in Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Convolvulaceae Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1161-1190. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Austin, D.F. in Dassanayake (ed.) (1980). Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon Convolvulaceae A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1: 288-363. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Austin, D.F. in Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, & S.H. Sohmer (1999). Man. Fl. Plts. Hawai'I Convolvulaceae Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'I 1: 548-564. University of Hawaii Press.
  • Baker, J.G. & A.B. Rendle in Thiselton-Dyer, W.T. et al. (eds.) (1905). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical Africa 4(2): 62-206. Secretary of State for the Colonies.
  • Barker, R.M. & Telford, I.R.H. (1993). Fl. Australia Oceanic Islds. Convolvs Flora of Australia 50: 342-353. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Bianchini, R.S., Ferreira, P.P.A. in Forzza, R.C. et al. (2010). Convolvulaceae Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.
  • Boldingh, I. in Boldingh, I. (1909). Convolvulaceae Flora of the Futch West Indian Islands, vol. I: St. Eustatius, Saba, and St. Martin 1: 161-163. E.J. Brill.
  • Bosser, J. & H. Heine (2000). Fl. Mascar. Convolvulaceae Flore des Mascareignes 127: 1-63. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Brown, F.B.H. (1935). Fl. SE Polynesia Convolvulaceae Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 130: 237-242.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Carranza, E. (2007). Convolvulaceae I, in Fl. Bajío Flora del Bajío y de regiones adyacentes 151: 1-129.
  • Clarke, C.B. in Hooker, J.D. (1883). Fl. Br. India Convolvulaceae Flora of British India 4: 179-228 + 734.
  • Clarke, C.B. in Kanjilal, U.N., A. Das, P.C. Kanjilal, & R.E. De (eds.) (1939). Fl. Assam Convolvulaceae Flora of Assam 3: 338-362+538. Govt. of Assam.
  • Deroin, T. (2001). Convolvulaceae Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 171: 11-287. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
  • Dobignard, A. & C. Chatelain in Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Convolvulaceae Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 331-351. Conservatoire et Jardin Botanique de la ville de Genève.
  • Fang, R.-Z. & Staples, G. (1995). Convolvulaceae Flora of China 16: 271-325. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet. M.-H. (1977). Flora of Micronesia 3: Convolvulaceae Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 36: 1-34.
  • Friedmann, F. (1994). Convolvulaceae Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 491-503. ORSTOM éditions.
  • Gagnepain & Courchet in H. Lecomte (1915). Flore Indo-Chine Convolvulaceae Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 4: 228-313.
  • Grigor'ev, Y.S. (1974). Convolvulaceae Flora of the USSR 19: 3-30. Science Publishers, Inc.
  • Hallier, H. (1899). Convolvulaceae Africanae. II Botanische Jahrbücher fur Systematik, Pflangengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 28: 28-54.
  • Hancock, I.R. & C.P. Henderson (1988). Convolvulaceae Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 131-132.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 88-93.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Heine, H. (1984). Fl. Nouv. Caléd. & Dépend. Convolvulaceae Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 13: 1-91. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Heine, H. in Hutchinson, J. & Dalziel, J.M. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of West Tropical Africa, second edition 2: 335-352 + 496. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
  • Khan, M.S. (1985). Fl. Bangladesh Convolvulaceae Flora of Bangladesh 30: 1-59. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Kress, W.J., R.A. DeFilipps, E. Farr, & Y.Y. Kyi in Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Cklist. Myanmar Convolvulaceae Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 197-201. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
  • Lee, Yong No in Lee, Yong No (2002). Convolvulaceae Flora of Korea 1: 652-656. Kyo-Hak Publ. Co., Ltd.
  • Lejoly, J. & S. Lisowski (1992). Les genres Merremia et Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) dans la Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi) Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica 37: 21-125.
  • Lisowski, S. in Lisowski, S. (2009). Convolvulaceae Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée: 136-145. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Long, R. W. & O. Lakela in Long, R. W. & O. Lakela (1976). Convolvulaceae A flora of tropical Florida: 711-724. Banyan Books.
  • Matuda, E. in Matuda, E. (1966). Las Convolvulaceas del estado de Mexico Las Convolvulaceae del estado de Mexico: 1-56. Govierno del Estado de Mexico, Direccion de Agricultura y Ganaderia.
  • Mill, R.R. (1999). Fl. Bhutan Convolvulaceae Flora of Bhutan 2(2): 834-862. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • O'Donell, C.A. (1959). Convolvuloideas de Uruguay Lilloa 29: 349-376. Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Instituto 'Miguel Lillo'.
  • Ooststroom, S.J. van & R.D. Hoogland (1953). Convolvulaceae Flora Malesiana 4: 388-512. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Press, J.R., K.K. Shrestha, & D.A. Sutton (2012). Nepal Cklist. Convolvulaceae Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal - online Natural History Museum et al.
  • Sachet, M.-H. (1983). CNV in Takapoto atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago: terrestrial vegetation and flora Atoll Research Bulletin 277: 1.
  • Shinners, L. in Correll, D.S. & M.C Johnston (1970). Convolvulaceae Manual of the vascular plants of Texas: 1241-1261. Texas Research Foundation.
  • Siddiqi, M.A. in Jafri, S.M.H. & El-Gadi, A. (eds.) (1977). Convolvulaceae Flora of Libya 45: 1-27. Al-Faateh University, Tripoli.
  • Smith, A.C. in Smith, A.C. (1991). Fl. Vitiensis Nova Convolvulaceae Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 41-69. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Spaulding, D. in Spaulding, D. (2013). Convolvulaceae Checklist of Alabama's vascular flora: 137-139.
  • Staples, G. (2018). Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêt-Nam 36: 1-406. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Thulin, M. et al. in Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Convolvulaceae Flora of Somalia 3: 221-258. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Tisserant, P. Ch. (1950). Catalogue de la flora de l'Oubangui-Chari Mémoires de l'Institut d'Études Centrafricaines 2: 1-166.
  • Turland, N.J. in Press, J.R. & Short, M.J. (eds.) (1994). Convolvulaceae Flora of Madeira: 266-271. HMSO.
  • Valentine, D.H. et al. in Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Convolvulaceae Flora Europaea 3: 74-83. Cambridge University Press.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-161.
  • Wagner, W.L. & D.H. Lorence in Wagner, W. L. & D. H. Lorence. (2002-ongoing). Fl. Marquesas CNV - April 2012 2002-. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website. Smithsonian Institution & National Tropical Bot. Garden.
  • Webb, C.J., W.R. Sykes, & P.J. Garnock-Jones (1988). Fl. New Zealand Convolvulaceae - naturalised Flora of New Zealand 4: 547-560+1289. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542. New York Botanical Garden.
  • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vascular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
  • Whistler, W.A. (1983). Fl. Veget. Swains Island Convolvulaceae Atoll Research Bulletin 262: 9-10.
  • Wilder, G.P. (1931). Fl. Rarotonga Convolvulaceae Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 86: 1-113.
  • Wood, J.R.I. in Wood, J.R.I. (1997). Handb. Yemen Fl. Convolvulaceae A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 230-236. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wood, J.R.I., Muñoz-Rodríguez P., Williams, B.R.M., Scotland, R.W. (2020). A foundation monograph of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the New World PhytoKeys 143: 1-823.
  • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1943). The Flora of Niue Island: Convolvulaceae Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 178: 98-99.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • Zizka, G. in Zizka, G. (1991). Flw. Pl. Easter Island Convolvulaceae Flowering Plants of Easter Island 3: 39-41. Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Bak. & Rendle in Flora of Tropical Africa 4 (2) : 175 (1905).
  • Hutch. & Dalz., Flora of West Tropical Africa 2 : 216 (1931).
  • Lam., Illustr. 1 : 465 (1793).
  • Meeuse in Bothalia 6 : 746 (1958).
  • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 308 (1949).
  • Stuhlmann in Deutsch-Ost-Afr. 10 : 246–251 (1909).

Universidad Nacional de Colombia

  • García Castro, N. J. (2011). Plantas nativas empleadas en alimentación en Colombia. Instituo de Investigaciones Biológicas Alexander von Humboldt. http://repository.humboldt.org.co/handle/20.500.11761/31275
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
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Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
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Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
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Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
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Kew Science Photographs
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Kew Species Profiles
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Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
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Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
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Wood Anatomy Microscope Slides
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