Oncoba spinosa Forssk.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, SW. Arabian Peninsula.

[FWTA]

Flacourtiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology General Habit
A shrub, or tree up to 40 ft. high, with thorny stem and branches
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers as above (Oncoba brachyanthera)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit hard and glossy.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree; branches usually with axillary spines
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with the blade elliptic to ovate-elliptic, c. 3.5–14 x 2–7 cm, acuminate at the apex, glabrous, finely crenate-serrate at the margin, with 6–8(–10) pairs of lateral veins; petiole 0.6–1 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers on a 1 cm long peduncle
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals broadly ovate to to suborbicular, 10–15 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals obovate-cuneate, 25–35 mm long, often pinkish when old
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 200–300, ± cohering in 5 bundles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary glabrous; style apically ± peltate, with a circle of sessile stigma-rays
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 5(–6) cm in diam., smooth or with weak longitunal rib-like markings.
Distribution
S2, 3; widespread in Africa; Arabia
Ecology
Altitude range 100–120 m.

[FTEA]

Flacourtiaceae, H. Sleumer (Rijksherbarium, Leiden). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1975

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree, up to 10 m. tall, much branched, with bushy crown.
Morphology Branches
Branches and branchlets with numerous lenticels and straight sharp axillary spines up to 7 cm. long.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades usually elliptic or ovate-elliptic, apex acuminate, base cuneate, ± papyraceous, rarely subcoriaceous, often wine red when young, glabrous, margin finely serrate or crenate-serrate (more coarsely so in coppice shoots), 3.5–14 cm. long, 2–7 cm. broad; lateral nerves 6–8(–10) pairs, tertiary ones dense and visibly reticulated on both faces; petiole 0.6–1 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, white, beautiful, on a peduncle 1–2 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals broadly ovate to suborbicular, greenish dorsally, white inside, ± persistent and finally reflexed, 1–1.5 cm. long, 0.8–1.2 cm. broad.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals obovate-cuneate, pure white in anthesis (often pinkish in bud or when ageing), outer ones 2.5–3.5 cm. long and 1.5–2 cm. broad, inner ones narrower.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 200–300, ± cohering in 5 bundles; anthers linear to linear-oblong, 2–3 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary subglobose; style 6–10 mm. long, with a circle of sessile subglobose (± connate) stigma-rays on top.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit round, 5(–6) cm. in diameter, smooth or marked with a number of slight longitudinal rib-like markings, with a hard shell-like red-brown and glossy pericarp.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ovoid, blackish brown, glabrous, 6–7 mm. long, 3–4 mm. broad.
Figures
Fig. 6/1–8.
Habitat
Forest edges, riverine forest and bushland, Brachystegia woodland; up to 1800 m.
Distribution
widespread in tropical Africa K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K7 T1 T2 T4 T5 T6 T7 U1 U2

[FZ]

Flacourtiaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Morphology General Habit
Glabrous shrub or small tree up to c. 5 m. tall; branches with pale lenticels and very sharp, spreading, axillary spines up to 5 cm. long.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-lamina 3.5–12 x 2–10 cm., usually rather membranous, elliptic, ovate-elliptic or oblong-elliptic, acuminate at the apex, abruptly cuneate at the base, serrate or serrate-crenate except near the base or serrations almost obsolete, with 7–11 pairs of lateral nerves, venation reticulate but not very conspicuous; petiole up to 8 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers scented, solitary and terminal or lateral on short, axillary shoots.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx globose in bud with 4 very concave, imbricate, persistent lobes shortly united at the base; lobes c. 1.5 x 1.2 cm., rounded at the apex and rather membranous at the margins.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white, 8–10, c. twice the size of the calyx-lobes, imbricate, oblong-spathulate, rounded at the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Anthers yellow, very numerous, 1.75 mm. long, linear with the connective produced as a minute narrowly triangular tip; filaments up to 6 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary globose with a style as long as the stamens; stigma 4 mm. in diam., peltate or somewhat funnel-shaped and lobulate at the margins.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit dark green or finally brown, c. 5 cm. in diam., globose, smooth, with a hard shell marked with c. 8 rather faint longitudinal lines, the old calyx persistent at the base, many-seeded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 6 x 4 mm., the shape of a somewhat flattened apple pip, with a shiny, rich brown testa.

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cameroon, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Cuba, Florida

Oncoba spinosa Forssk. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Oct 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [7256], Cameroon K000008991 No
Andrews, F.W. [1578], Sudan 4938.000 No
Deistel, H. [90], Cameroon K000094650 No
Brunt, M.A. [237], Cameroon K000105918 No

First published in Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 103 (1775)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Aké Assi, L. (2001). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. I Boissiera 57: 1-396.
  • Bamps, P. (1968). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Flacourtiaceae (1): 1-61. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.
  • Berhaut, J. (1975). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 4: 1-625. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Streliztia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sleumer, H. (1975). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Flacourtiaceae: 1-68.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Aubrév. Fl. For. C. Iv. 3: 8.
  • Chev. Bot. 37
  • —F.T.A. 1: 115

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Aké Assi, L. (2001). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. I Boissiera 57: 1-396.
  • Bamps, P. (1968). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Flacourtiaceae (1): 1-61. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Streliztia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Killick, D.J.B. (1976). Flacourtiaceae (including Samydaceae) Flora of Southern Africa 22: 53-92. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sleumer, H. (1975). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Flacourtiaceae: 1-68.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Bamps in Flore du Congo Belge, du Ruanda et du Burundi, Flacourt.: 16, fig. 1/A (1968).
  • Battiscombe & Dale, Trees and Shrubs of Kenya Colony p. 21 (1936).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 227 (1961).
  • Engl, in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 277 (1895).
  • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 266 (1962).
  • Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: CXIII, 103 (1775).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 234 (1949).
  • Oliv. in Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 115 (1868), incl. var. angolensis Oliv.
  • Sim, For. Fl. Port. E. Afr.: 12, t. 2/B (1909).
  • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 149 (1952).
  • Wild in Flora Zambesiaca 1: 275, t. 46/B (1960).

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
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