Heliotropium curassavicum L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Australia, Hawaiian Islands, Tropical & Subtropical America. It is used as a poison and a medicine and for food.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 32 m.; Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Caribbean. Elevation range: 0–32 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Atlántico, Bolívar, La Guajira, Magdalena, San Andrés y Providencia.
Habit
Herb.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC. National Red List of Colombia (2021): Potential LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.

[FZ]

Boraginaceae, E. S. Martins (Trichodesma by R. K. Brummit). Flora Zambesiaca 7:4. 1990

Morphology General Habit
Prostrate or decumbent annual or perennial fleshy herb, much branched, glaucous, quite glabrous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate or supposite, 15–30(45) x 2–6 mm., narrowly oblong to narrowly obovate, rounded at apex, narrowed gradually to the base into a short petiole, entire, fleshy, slightly verrucous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes moderately dense, ebracteate, slightly scorpioid, up to 8 cm. long when completely expanded, single or 2, rarely to 4 on each short common peduncle, terminal.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers subsessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx c. 2 mm. long, irregularly divided; tube none to as long as; of the calyx; lobes usually subequal, ovate to narrowly triangular, apex subacute to rounded, slightly inflexed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla usually overlapping the calyx a little, salver-shaped, white; tube 1.5–2.0 mm. long; lobes usually unequal, the largest one up to 1.0 mm. long, triangular-ovate to oblong, rounded at apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted at 1/31/2 of the corolla tube; anthers c. 0.8 mm. long, narrowly ovoid, apiculate, subcordate at base, subsessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary ovoid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Style very short; stigma umbrella shaped without sterile appendix.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits c. 2 mm. long, ± globulose; nutlets ovoid, free at maturity, with the outer surface rugose, the inner one with a ± circular cavity or a shell-shaped depression.

[FTEA]

Boraginaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

Morphology General Habit
Branched prostrate glabrous somewhat fleshy ± glaucous perennial herb with radiating stems 7–20(–40) cm. long, usually from a deep rhizome or tuber; flowering stems ± ascending.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves oblanceolate or oblong, 1–5 cm. long, 3–8(–20) mm. wide, obtuse or rounded at the apex, narrowed at the base, ± succulent and juicy.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal or extra-axillary and lateral along the leafy stems, single, paired or rarely ternate, densely-flowered scorpioid cymes, elongating in fruit to up to 10 cm.; bracts absent; pedicels obsolete.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx lobed almost to the base; lobes ± equal, lanceolate or oblong, 1–1.4 mm. long, ± obtuse, ± accrescent in fruit, fleshy.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, mostly with a greenish yellow eye and sometimes a faint pink stripe on the lobes; tube cylindrical, 1–1.5 mm. long, 0.8–1.2 mm. diameter, slightly shorter than the calyx-lobes; limb 1.5–3(–10) mm. diameter, the lobes rounded, 0.6–1 mm. long, 0.8–1.3 mm. wide, ascending or somewhat spreading.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers lanceolate, pointed, not cohering, held about 0.5 mm. above the corolla base, 0.8–1 mm. long, subsessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma 0.5 mm. long, 0.6 mm. wide, conic with a truncate obscurely 4-lobulate apex, becoming discoid and somewhat 4–5- sided in fruit.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 4-lobed, 2–2.5 mm. tall, 2–3 mm. wide, smooth; nutlets 4, obscurely didymous, the backs smooth and rounded, ventrally angled, rough; each nutlet 1-seeded with a bony endocarp and dorsally with a thick layer of firm vesicular exocarp which acts as a float for water dissemination.

[UPFC]
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.

Doubtfully present in:

French Guiana

Native to:

Alabama, Alberta, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, California, Central American Pac, Chile Central, Chile North, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Idaho, Inner Mongolia, Kansas, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, Nicaragua, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Territory, Oklahoma, Oregon, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Saskatchewan, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Texas, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wyoming

Introduced into:

Algeria, Angola, Azores, Baleares, Bangladesh, Botswana, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., Egypt, France, Free State, Greece, Gulf States, Illinois, Jawa, KwaZulu-Natal, Libya, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkey, West Himalaya

Heliotropium curassavicum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Archbold, M.E. [1081], Tanzania 6049.149 No
St. Hilaire [C2249], Brazil K000096787 Yes
St. Hilaire [2249], Uruguay K000096786 Yes
Glaziou, A.F.M. [19681], Brazil K000096785 Yes
Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000418756 Yes
Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000418757 Yes
Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000418758 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 130 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Ali, S.I. & Nasir, Y.J. (1989). Flora of West Pakistan 191: 1-200.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
  • Bhellum, B.L. (2012). Flora exotica of Jammu and Kashmir (List- I). Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 36: 33-45.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras. Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1991). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 7: 1-439. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 1-825. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Greuter, W. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2008). Med-Checklist Notulae, 27. Willdenowia 38: 465-474.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2020). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 4(2): 1-524. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition. Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kalkman, C. & al. (eds.) (1997). Flora Malesiana 13: 1-454. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Launert, E. & Pope, G.V. (eds.) (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 1-114. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico. Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Schäfer, H. (2021). Flora of the Azores a field guide: 1-445. Margraf Publishers GmbH.
  • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1991). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Boraginaceae: 1-124.
  • Verloove, F. (2013). New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalised and (potentially) invasive species. Collectanea Botanica 32: 59-82.
  • Verloove, Fl. & Reyes-Betancort, J.A. (2011). Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary islands, Spain). Collectanea Botanica 30: 63-78.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • di Fulvio, T.E. & Espinar, L.A. (2016). Las especies Argentinas de Heliotropium (Boraginaceae). Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 51: 745-787.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
  • Bhellum, B.L. (2012). Flora exotica of Jammu and Kashmir (List- I). Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 36: 33-45.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras. Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1991). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 7: 1-439. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 1-825. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Greuter, W. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2008). Med-Checklist Notulae, 27. Willdenowia 38: 465-474.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2020). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 4(2): 1-524. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition. Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kalkman, C. & al. (eds.) (1997). Flora Malesiana 13: 1-454. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Launert, E. & Pope, G.V. (eds.) (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 1-114. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Levin, G.A. & Moran, R. (1989). The vascular flora of isla Socorro, Mexico: 1-71. Dept. of Botany, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico. Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Sachet, M.-H. (1962). Flora and vegetation of Clipperton island. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, IV, 31: 249-307.
  • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
  • USDA, NRCS ( 2021-continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1991). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Boraginaceae: 1-124.
  • Verloove, Fl. & Reyes-Betancort, J.A. (2011). Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary islands, Spain). Collectanea Botanica 30: 63-78.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • di Fulvio, T.E. & Espinar, L.A. (2016). Las especies Argentinas de Heliotropium (Boraginaceae). Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 51: 745-787.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Brummitt in Fl. Europaea 3: 86 (1972).
  • Correll & M.C. Johnston, Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas: 1288 (1970).
  • I.M. Johnston in Contr. Gray Herb. 81: 14 (1928)
  • I.M. Johnston in Lundell et al., Fl. Texas 1: 145 (1964, rpt. 1967).
  • Kazmi in Journ. Arn. Arb. 51: 179 (1970).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 130 (1753).
  • Martins in Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 93, t. 26/12 (1990).
  • Riedl in Fl. Turkey 6: 255, fig. 11/3 (1978).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2019). Lista de especies vedadas por la resolución 213 de 1977. 8256 especies. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_plantaspriorizadas_2019
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0