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This species is accepted, and its native range is Peru to Brazil and N. Argentina.
Heliotropium indicum

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1675 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, subarbusto, arbusto
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[UNAL]
Vernacular
Alacrán, Jeyutse, Rabo de alacrán, Tiriaodes, Verbena, Verbena morada

[FWTA]

Boraginaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Robust annual 1-3 ft. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Small lilac, sometimes white, flowers in long dense curled spikes
Ecology
A common weed of waste places near dwellings, throughout the area.

[FZ]

Boraginaceae, E. S. Martins (Trichodesma by R. K. Brummit). Flora Zambesiaca 7:4. 1990

Morphology General Habit
Erect annual or a few times short-lived perennial herb up to 150 cm. high.
Morphology Stem
Stem quadrangular, thick, empty or pithed, woody to the base, variably hairy.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate or subopposite; petiole 20–70(110) mm. long, pubescent, with scattered bristles; lamina 40–170 x 30–130 mm., ovate to broadly ovate or triangular-ovate, strigose by areolae and with scattered bristles, roughish or only punctate above, generally pubescent-villous, rarely tomentose or punctate and with some scattered bristles mainly on the nerves and veins below, acute at the apex, obtuse to subcordate at the base and abruptly decurrent on the petiole, often with crisped margins; secondary nerves 4–8 on each side of the midrib.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes long and flexuous, up to 36 cm. long when completely expanded, usually shorter, ± dense, single or sometimes in pairs, on a short terminal peduncle.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx lobes 1.5–3.5 mm. long, narrowly elliptic to subulate, unequal, sparsely hispid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 3.5–5.0 mm. long, hypocrateriform, pubescent outside, glabrous inside, white or rarely mauve or blue; tube 3.0–4.5 mm. long, usually longer than the calyx; lobes c. 0.6 x 1.0 mm., depressed-ovate, rounded at apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted at 0.8–1.0 mm. from the base of the corolla tube; anthers 0.5–0.9 mm. long, narrowly ovate, cordate at the base, subsessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary with 4 fleshy crests, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 0.5 mm. long, terete, glabrous; sterile appendix hemispheric.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit deeply bilobed, mitre-shaped with the lobes strongly divergent, glabrous or puberulous, first divided into 2, each one c. 4 x 4 x 2.5 mm., later split into 4 nutlets, these angular, rostrate, with the surface 3-ribbed; each nutlet with 2 cavities, the distal one fertile and the proximal one empty and larger than the other.

[FTEA]

Boraginaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

Morphology General Habit
Robust erect tufted perennial or annual herb or subshrubby herb 0.2–1.5 m. tall, usually much branched; stems woody at the base; young stems juicy, with short pubescence and coarse bristly longer white hairs, eventually glabrous or obscurely tuberculate.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate or opposite, blades ovate to elliptic or ± triangular, (1.5–)3– 16 cm. long, (0.5–)1.3–10 cm. wide, acute or acuminate at the apex, mostly abruptly truncate then very narrowly attenuate into the 1–7 cm. long petiole, or even ± subcordate or obtuse, the margin irregularly undulate, slightly bullate with nervation distinct beneath, with dense short tubercle-based hairs and sparser longer white hairs, sometimes almost velvety beneath.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers numerous in long dense single scorpioid cymes, unilateral, 2.5–45 cm. long, rolled up at the summit, with short pubescence and long setiform white hairs; peduncle up to 5 cm. long; pedicels obsolete.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx divided ± to the base into lanceolate leafy lobes 2.5–3 mm. long, sparsely white bristly hairy and with shorter pubescence.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla blue, lilac or often white; tube cylindrical, 3–4.5 mm. long, widened at the base, funnel-shaped above, sparsely pubescent outside; limb 3–4 mm. wide, lobed for ± 1 mm., the lobes rounded, 0.5–1 mm. long, 1–1.5 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary globose with 4 erect fleshy crests; style 0.5–0.7 mm. long, the stigma discoid surmounted by a hemispherical dome.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits brown, ovoid, glabrous or glabrescent, grooved, splitting first into 2 cohering pairs of nutlets then into 4 trigonous-ovoid nutlets 4 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, produced, almost wing-like, and acuminate at the apex, the outer face with 3 sharp ridges ± anastomosing at the apex; internal faces devoid of cavities, smooth and convex.
Figures
Fig. 18/5, p. 66.
Habitat
Bushland, plantations, old cultivations, roadsides, mostly in damp sandy places, e.g. river banks, also on riverine mud; 0–975(–1600) m.
Distribution
T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Senegal to Angola,N. Argentina to S. U.S.A. and throughout the tropics of Old World, probably originally an American species

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Paraguay, Peru

Introduced into:

Alabama, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Arkansas, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Florida, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Indiana, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Ohio, Oklahoma, Panamá, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., South Carolina, South China Sea, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Virginia, West Virginia, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Heliotropium indicum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jun 1, 2010 Chin [3565], Peninsular Malaysia K000611884
Jun 1, 2010 Wiriadinata [13362], Sulawesi K000611885
Meikle, R.D. [1291], Nigeria 5503.000
Tuley, P. [5011], Cameroon K000029803
Maitland, T.D. [1179], Cameroon K000029804
s.coll. [Cat. no. 913] Tiaridium indicum K001110267
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 913], Myanmar Tiaridium indicum K001110264
s.coll. [Cat. no. 913] Tiaridium indicum K001110268
s.coll. [Cat. no. 913] Tiaridium indicum K001110273
s.coll. [Cat. no. 913] Tiaridium indicum K001110270
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 913] Tiaridium indicum K001110274
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 913], India Tiaridium indicum K001110263
s.coll. [Cat. no. 913] Tiaridium indicum K001110266
s.coll. [Cat. no. 913] Tiaridium indicum K001110265
s.coll. [Cat. no. 913] Tiaridium indicum K001110271
s.coll. [Cat. no. 913] Tiaridium indicum K001110275
s.coll. [Cat. no. 913], India Tiaridium indicum K001110272
s.coll. [Cat. no. 913] Tiaridium indicum K001110269
Spruce, R. [6492], Ecuador Heliophytum indicum K000202169

First published in Sp. Pl.: 139 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Autrey, J.C., Bosser, J. & Ferguson, I.K. (eds.) (2005). Flore des Mascareignes 121-126: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Buragohain, S. & Sarma, G.C. (2009). The exotic weeds of Guwahati, Assam and their role in employment generation Pleione 3(1): 45-49.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1991). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 7: 1-439. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2020). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 4(2): 1-524. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1982). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 3: 1-226. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Heine, H. (1976). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 7: 1-212. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kalkman, C. & al. (eds.) (1997). Flora Malesiana 13: 1-454. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Launert, E. & Pope, G.V. (eds.) (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 1-114. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Mirando de Melo, J.I., Taroda Ranga, N. & Cavalheiro, L. (2013). Flora dos Estados de Goiás e Tocantins 43: 1-62. Universidade federal de Goiás.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Pérez-Farrera, M.Á., Martínez-Camilo, R., Martínez-Meléndez, N., Farrera-Sarmiento, O. & Maza-Villalobos, S. (2012). Listado florístico del Cerro Quetzal (Polígono III) de la reserva de la biosfera El Triunfo, Chiapas, México Botanical Sciences 90: 113-142.
  • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Taton, A. (1971). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Boraginaceae: 1-82. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1991). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Boraginaceae: 1-124.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
  • di Fulvio, T.E. & Espinar, L.A. (2016). Las especies Argentinas de Heliotropium (Boraginaceae) Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 51: 745-787.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Berhaut Fl. Sén. 200
  • Chev. Bot. 450
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 32
  • Sp. Pl. 130 (1753)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Autrey, J.C., Bosser, J. & Ferguson, I.K. (eds.) (2005). Flore des Mascareignes 121-126: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Buragohain, S. & Sarma, G.C. (2009). The exotic weeds of Guwahati, Assam and their role in employment generation Pleione 3(1): 45-49.
  • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1991). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 7: 1-439. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2020). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 4(2): 1-524. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1982). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 3: 1-226. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Heine, H. (1976). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 7: 1-212. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
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  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
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Flora of Tropical East Africa

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Universidad Nacional de Colombia

  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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