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This species is accepted, and its native range is India to S. China and Sumatera. It is used to treat digestive system disorders and unspecified medicinal disorders and for food.
Colocasia esculenta 1

[FTEA]

Araceae, S.J. Mayo. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

Morphology General Habit
Robust, acaulescent herb to 2 m. high or more; stem a swollen starchy tuber.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf broadly ovate in outline, peltate, cordate-sagittate, held pendent from ± erect petiole, apex obtuse, basal lobes ± rounded, primary lateral veins 6–10, prominent on lower surface, distal side veinlets of primary lateral veins arching towards margin and forming regular, parallel series.
Note
Flowering is very rare in some cultivars.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Spathe
Spathe 20–30 cm. long, basal tube green, short, apical blade yellow to orange, much longer.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spadix
Spadix shorter than spathe with conic, sterile appendix up to 4 cm. long (occasionally reduced or absent).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers unisexual, lacking tepals.
Distribution
Cultivated throughout the tropics for the tubers, petioles and young leaves, which are eaten after cooking. Naturalized in Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania (and throughout the tropics) in moist localities, especially highland valleys, e.g. Uganda, Ruwenzori, Eggeling 3804!

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 5 - 2200 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba

[CATE]

CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

Habitat
Wild forms occur as colonies on river banks, in open swampy places, on slopes and on rocks and banks in the splash-zone of waterfalls. Very occasionally found in forest under storey (e.g., at Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatera). Widely cultivated usually near farmhouses or in water fields; also naturalized or perhaps native in wet places in forests, valleys, swamps, wastelands, and at watersides.
Distribution
Pan tropical and pan subtropical (in areas with adequate water) through cultivation for the edible, starch-bearing rhizome and the leaves – The range prior to human distribution is unknown, but may have been widespread from Indochina to southern Japan, through Malesia and northern Australia. In Malesia: throughout.
General Description
Rhizome vertical to horizontal, tuberous, 3–5cm or more (up to 15cm) in diam. Stolons long or absent. Leaves 2 or 3 or more; petiole green, 25–80cm, sheathing for 1/3–2/3 length; leaf blade adaxially matte waxy-glaucous and water-shedding (water sometimes forming “mercury droplets”), oblong-ovate to suborbicular, 13–45 × 10–35cm, base shallowly cordate (sinus 1–4cm), apex broadly and shortly cuspidate. Peduncle usually solitary, 16–26cm. Spathe tube green, 3.5–5 × 1.2–1.5cm; limb open proximally, cream-colored to golden yellow, lanceolate or elliptic, 10–19 × 2–5cm, apex acuminate. Spadix: female zone conic, 3–3.5 × ca. 1.2cm; ovary 1–3mm in diam.; stigma subsessile, narrower than apex of ovary; sterile zone narrowly cylindric, 3–3.3cm; sterile flowers (pistils) seen from above elongate, ca. 0.5mm in diam.; male zone cylindric, 4–6.5cm × ca. 7mm; appendix narrowly conic, 15–45 × ca. 2mm. Berry green, ca. 4mm. Seeds few; synandria ca. 1mm high, ca. 0.8mm in diam. 2n = 26, 28, 30, 36, 38, 42, 44, 46, 48, 52, 58, 84, 116.
Robust herb c. 0.8–1.8 m tall. Stem rhizomatous, condensed, usually short in wild or feral forms, though occasionally subarborescent (e.g. G. Gede Pangrango, Java), strongly stoloniferous in wild and some cultivated forms. LEAVES several; petiole c. 0.8–1.8 m long, with the sheath long, the apex usually bent horizontal (shade) or vertically down (sun) so blade often pendent; blade ovate-sagittate c. 25–90 cm long x 20–70 cm wide greenish to dark green, sometimes dark purple adaxially, pale green or glaucous abaxially; apex acute, c. 0.5 cm long; anterior lobe c. 2/3 the length of the blade; primary veins 5–7 on each side of the anterior costa, prominent abaxially and slightly raised adaxially, diverging from the midrib at 50–70°; sub marginal vein c. 0.2 cm from the margin; secondary venation flush with lamina to slightly raised abaxially; interprimary collective veins inconspicuous; posterior lobes c. 1/3 length of blade, acute, peltate for 2/3 their length, diverging at c. 40°–50°. INFLORESCENCES several together in row in the leaf axils; peduncle c. 70 cm long, down-curved in fruiting stage. Spathe varied in colour from green, yellow to orange, c. 30 cm long, constricted at level of sterile zone of the spadix; lower spathe c. 5 cm long, narrowly oblong-ovate, green; limb long, very narrowly ovate, c. 25 cm long, slightly bent, yellow to orange, deciduous or withering. Spadix stipitate, c. 13.5 cm long; female zone 3 cm long, pistils with scattered staminodes; ovary globose, green, c. 0.15 cm long, c. 0.15 cm in diam., with many ovules, placenta parietal; stigma light yellow, on short style, 1 lobed, lobes rounded; style c. 0.05 cm long; sterile interstice attenuate, c. 1 cm long, c. 6 whorls of more or less rhombo-hexagonal synandrodia; male zone c. 4 cm long, yellow; synandria irregularly rounded to rhombo-hexagonal, c. 0.15 cm long, c. 0.1 cm in diam.; thecae flat-topped, opening through apical pores; appendix yellow, c. 5.5 cm long. Fruit a green berry, thin-walled, few seeded, ± 0.4 cm long.
Phenology
Fl. Feb–Apr (Yunnan), or Aug–Sep (Qin Ling area).
Vernacular
yu
Common Taro, Talas or Keladi.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 5 - 2200 m.
Distribution
Cultivated in Colombia.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.

[FWTA]

Araceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Note
Cultivated extensively in our area for the tuber (coco-yam) and frequently naturalized
Morphology Leaves
The large leaves are seldom accompanied by flowers.

[FTEA]
Use
Probably originated in tropical Asia, but has been cultivated by man since ancient times (‘Taro’, ‘Eddoa’, ‘Chinese Eddoe’, ‘Mayugwa’, ‘Kalo’ or ‘Timba’).

[CATE]
Use
The rhizomes, petioles, and inflorescences are used as a vegetable. The rhizomes are used medicinally for treating swellings, abscesses, snake and insect bites, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck.

[UPB]
Use Food
'Roots' - edible (Cadena-González 2010).
Use Gene Sources
Crop wild relatives which may possess beneficial traits of value in breeding programmes (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Digestive System Disorders
'Roots' - Used in liquid medicines (Cadena-González 2010).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Assam, Bangladesh, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, India, Laos, Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand

Introduced into:

Alabama, Algeria, Andaman Is., Azores, Baleares, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, Christmas I., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., Easter Is., Ecuador, Florida, Galápagos, Gambia, Gilbert Is., Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kermadec Is., Korea, Laccadive Is., Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Maldives, Marquesas, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Morocco, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Sardegna, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Texas, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tunisia, Turkey, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Taro, Dasheen
Spanish
Malanga, malangay, bore, taro.

Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2005 Acevedo-Rdgz, P. [14450], Puerto Rico K000731707
Jun 29, 2001 Utteridge, T.M.A. [411], Indonesia 64566.000
Jun 20, 2000 Johns, R.J. [9247], New Guinea 62494.000
Zambia 16893.000
22436.000
Boyce, P.C. [976], Thailand 60529.000
Willis, F.R. [284], Indonesia 71459.000

First published in H.W.Schott & S.L.Endlicher, Melet. Bot.: 18 (1832)

Accepted by

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  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Albano, P.-O. (2003). La Conaissance des Plantes Exotiques: 1-324. Édisud, Aix-en-Provence.
  • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
  • Ara, H. (2001). An Annotated Checklist of Aroids of Bangladesh Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 8(2): 19-34.
  • Ara, H., & Abul Hassan, M. (2005). New records of three aroids from Bangladesh Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 12: 25-32.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berhaut, J. (1988). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 9: 1-522. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Boyce, P.C., Sookchaloem, D., Hetterscheid, W.L.A., Gusman, G., Jacobsen, N., Idei, T. & Nguyen, V.D. (2012). Flora of Thailand 11(2): 101-325. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
  • Funez, L.A. & al. (2017). Fifty-five new records of vascular plants, and other discoveries for the flora of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 72: 221-275.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Gogoi, R. & Borah, S. (2013). Two new species and a new record for Colocasia (Araceae: Colocasieae) from Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 65: 27-37.
  • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Güner, A. (ed.) (2018). Resimli Türkiye Floras? (Illustrated Flora of Turkey) 2: 1-1054. ANG Vakf?/Nezahat Gökyi?it Botanik Bahçesi, Istambul.
  • Haigh, A. & Boyce, P.C. (2012). Flora Zambesiaca 12(1): 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
  • Hernandez, J. (2007). In Hawaiian rainforests: exotic aroid ecologies Aroideana 30: 91-97.
  • Herrera, K., Lorence, D.H., Flynn, T. & Balick, M.J. (2010). Checklist of the Vascular plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with local names and uses Allertonia 10: 1-204.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
  • Kurniawan, A., Adjie, B. & Boyce, P.C. (2011). Studies on the Araceae of Sulawesi I: New taxa of Schismatoglottis and Homalomena, and a preliminary checklist and keys for Sulawesi Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 61: 40-50.
  • Mansor, M., Boyce, P.C., Othman, A.S. & Sulaiman, B. (2012). The Araceae of peninsular Malaysia: 1-146. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia.
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Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • A. F. Hill in Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harvard 7: 113(1939)
  • Morton, W. Afr. Lilies & Orch. fig. 60.
  • in Schott and Endl., Melet. 1: 18 (1832)

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Cadena-González, A.L. (2010). Study of knowledge on medicinal plants in Zetaquira and Campo Hermoso municipalities (Departamento de Boyacá, Colombia) using quantitative approaches. Faculty of Life Sciences. University of Copenhagen.
  • Crop wild relative Inventory https://www.cwrdiversity.org/checklist/ in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • National Research Council (US). Panel on Underexploited Tropical Plants with Promising Economic Value, & United States. Agency for International Development. Office of Science. (1975). Underexploited Tropical Plants with Promising Economic Value: Report of an Ad Hoc Panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Commission on International Relations (Vol. 16). National Academies.

CATE Araceae

  • Hen(g) Li, Guang Hua Zhu, Boyce, P.C., Murata, J., Hetterscheid, W.L.A., Bogner, J. & Jacobsen, N. 2010. Araceae in Flora of China @ efloras.org.
  • Yuzammi & Hay, A. Colocasia in Araceae (Unpublished) Flora Malesiana.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
  • Ara, H. (2001). An Annotated Checklist of Aroids of Bangladesh Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 8(2): 19-34.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berhaut, J. (1988). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 9: 1-522. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
  • Funez, L.A. & al. (2017). Fifty-five new records of vascular plants, and other discoveries for the flora of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 72: 221-275.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
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CATE Araceae
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