Torenia crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schltdl.

First published in Linnaea 2: 570 (1827)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Tropics & Subtropics. It is an annual and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome. It is used as a medicine and for food.

Distribution

Native to:

Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Colombia, Congo, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, French Guiana, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malaya, Marianas, Marquesas, Mexico Central, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Samoa, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Suriname, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Tonga, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Zaïre

Introduced into:

Alabama, Arkansas, Cuba, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Mauritius, Mississippi, North Carolina, Puerto Rico, Seychelles, South Carolina, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is.

Synonyms

Homotypic Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Prasad, M.G. & Sunojkumar, P. (2015). Taxonomic identity of Torenia leucosiphon (Linderniaceae) and its resurrection from synonymy of Torenia travancorica. Phytotaxa 219(1): 144-154.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2016). Flore du Gabon 48: 1-158. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

An alternative taxonomy had been proposed by the following authorities:

  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela. [Cited as Lindernia crustacea.]

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Amith, J. & collaborators (2020). Nahuatl Learning Environment http://www.balsas-nahuatl.org/index.html.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 127-135: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau). Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India. Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
  • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Fischer, E. (1999). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Scrophulariaceae: 1-217. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2019). Flora of North America North of Mexico 17: 1-737. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki. Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae. Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2. Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides. Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
  • Hallé, N. (1980). Les Orchidees de Tubuai (archipel des Australes, Sud Polynesie), suivies d'un catalogue des plantes a fleurs et fougeres des iles Australes. Cahiers de l'Indo-Pacifique 2(3): 69-130.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Yamazaki, T., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1993). Flora of Japan IIIa: 1-482. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations. Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo). Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée. Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Meyer, J.-Y. (2017). Guide des plantes de Wallis et Futuna: 1-486. Au vent des iles, editions, Tahiti.
  • Mill, R. & al. (2015). Flora of Pakistan 220: 1-331. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Rodrigues Furtado, M.N., de Souza Secco, R. & Sousa Rocha, A.E. (2012). Sinopse das espécies de Lamiales Bromhead ocorrentes nas restingas do estado do Pará, Brasil. Hoehnea 39: 529-547.
  • Singh, M. & Ali, S.J. (2008). A study on aquatic Angiosperms of district Mau (East U.P.). Journal of East African Natural History 32: 877-890.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon. Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2016). Flore du Gabon 48: 1-158. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • T. Smitinand & K. Larsen, eds. (1987). Flora of Thailand 5: 1-470. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea). Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia. Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • Z.Wu & P.H.Raven (eds.) (1998). Flora of China 18: 1-449. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2019). Lista de especies vedadas por la resolución 213 de 1977. 8256 especies. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_plantaspriorizadas_2019
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 3942] Tittmannia ovata K001117669 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3942] Tittmannia ovata K001117667 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3942], India Tittmannia ovata K001117668 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3942], Myanmar Tittmannia ovata K001117670 Yes
Barter, C. [s.n.], Nigeria Lindernia gracilis K000405126 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3962] Torenia lucida K001117731 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3962], India Torenia lucida K001117732 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3962], India Torenia lucida K001117729 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3962], India Torenia lucida K001117726 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3962], India Torenia lucida K001117728 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3962], Singapore Torenia lucida K001117735 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3962], Nepal Torenia lucida K001117733 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3962], Myanmar Torenia lucida K001117736 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3962], India Torenia lucida K001117730 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3962], India Torenia lucida K001117727 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3962], Nepal Torenia lucida K001117734 Yes
Jan 1, 2013 Wardi et al. [BOHK 440], Indonesia Lindernia crustacea K000734578 No
Jul 2, 2009 Wood, J.R.I. et al. [11168], Bolivia Lindernia crustacea K000634281 No
Apr 1, 2009 Chew, M.Y. [53524], Peninsular Malaysia Lindernia crustacea K000610492 No
Apr 1, 2009 Nagamasu, H. [7286], Malaysia Lindernia crustacea K000610498 No
Jan 1, 2008 Zappi, D.C. [960], Mato Grosso Lindernia crustacea K000447865 No
Jun 23, 2005 Rees [123], Papua New Guinea Lindernia crustacea K000223453 No
Jun 23, 2005 Rees [133], Papua New Guinea Lindernia crustacea K000223454 No
Aug 13, 2003 Runi, Yii et al. [63029], Sarawak Lindernia crustacea K000183404 No
Jan 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [9556], Cameroon Lindernia crustacea K000198719 No
Jan 1, 1988 Blewett, J.B.J. [11], Malaysia Lindernia crustacea K000223703 No
Jun 1, 1966 Pierre, J.B.L. [s.n.], Vietnam Lindernia crustacea K000859660 isotype Yes
Apr 1, 1964 s.coll. [s.n.], Northern Territory Lindernia crustacea K000859776 Yes
Apr 1, 1964 Brown, R. [2694], Australia Lindernia crustacea K000859777 Unknown type material Yes
Apr 1, 1964 Hamilton, F. [3961], India Lindernia crustacea K000820838 holotype Yes
Keay, R.W.J. [37175], Nigeria Lindernia crustacea 1117.000 No
Wallich, N. [3962], Nepal Lindernia crustacea K000800765 Unknown type material Yes
Degener, O [23757], Hawaii Lindernia crustacea K000859762 Unknown type material Yes
Griffith, W. [231], Myanmar Lindernia crustacea K000859711 holotype Yes
Chuml, H. [235], Cameroon Lindernia crustacea K000028747 No
Wallich [3962] Lindernia crustacea K000859706 Yes
Griffith, W. [9306], Peninsular Malaysia Lindernia crustacea K000859712 Yes
Thomson, T. [468], Uttar Pradesh Lindernia crustacea K000859707 Yes
Adam, F. [s.n.], India Lindernia crustacea K000859705 Yes
Migeod, F. [267], Cameroon Lindernia crustacea K000028745 No
Wallich [3962], India Lindernia crustacea K000859708 Yes
Wallich [3962], India Lindernia crustacea K000859709 Yes
Chuml, H. [200B], Cameroon Lindernia crustacea K000028746 No
s.coll. [300], Assam Lindernia crustacea K000859710 Yes

Sources

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0