Socratea exorrhiza (Mart.) H.Wendl.

This species is accepted, and its native range is SE. Nicaragua to S. Tropical America. It is has environmental uses and social uses, as animal food and a medicine and for fuel and food.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1150 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Árbol, palma solitaria
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Guiana Shield, Orinoquia, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–1150 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Bolívar, Caquetá, Casanare, Cauca, Chocó, Córdoba, Guainía, Guaviare, Meta, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Risaralda, Santander, Valle del Cauca, Vaupés, Vichada.
Conservation
National Red List of Colombia (2021): LC.
Habit
Tree, Solitary palm.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Anaku tsatsavó (Cofán), Araco (Achagua), Arra sĩi (Emberá), Bonbon (Siona), Chuapo (Achagua), Crespa (Achagua), Dorida (Uitoto), Ebáñi maihóbariño (Cubeo)

[PW]
Distribution
Widespread in Central America and South America. In Ecuador it occurs in moist forest on both sides of the Andes, and is often quite common.
General Description
Canopy palm. Stem solitary, 10-20 m tall and 10-20 cm in diameter, supported at base by a few, thick, brown stilt roots with numerous short, white root spines. Leaves 1.5-3.5 m long; pinnae 15-25 on each side, longitudinally split into 2-18 unequal segments, these 40-90 cm long. Inflorescence axis 30-60 cm long; branches 5-20, to 40 cm long. Male flowers ca. 1 cm long, with 17-65 stamens. Female flowers ca. 5 mm long. Fruit elongate, 1.5-2.5 cm long, smooth.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
araco, araque, cachuda zancona, choapo, chonta, chonta pambil, chuapo, crespa, gualte macho, guasaina, jira, jira patona, jira zancona, macanilla, maquenque patudo, pachúa zancona, pachuba pequeña, pachuda zancona, palma araco, palma araña, palma choapo, palma mulata, palma patona, palma ralladora, palma zancona, patona, patuda, pona lisa, ponilla, raíza, rallador, ralladora, raspador, yaripa zancona, zanca de araña, zancona

[UPFC]
Vernacular
Chonta, Igaicu (Muinane), Iguaajiu (Miraña), Poo-ko (Andoque), Zancona

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Social
Social uses.

Native to:

Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Nicaragua, Panamá, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela

Socratea exorrhiza (Mart.) H.Wendl. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Oct 13, 2004 Pennington, T.D. [17125], Peru K000208494 No
Apr 23, 2001 Lister [308], Venezuela K000520353 No
Jan 1, 1986 Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. [340], Guyana K000209466 No
Stannard [544], Venezuela K000667828 No
Pennington, R.T. [139], Bolivia 29047.706 No
Milliken, W. [M.515], Brazil 54103.000 No
Milliken, W. [1866], Brazil 59731.000 No
Rusby, H.H. [415], Venezuela K000462938 isotype Yes
Trail, J.W.H. [1053], Brazil K000209463 Yes
Trail, J.W.H. [s.n.], Brazil K000520354 No
Thurn [6], Guyana K000209464 No
Panama Socratea durissima 29047.308 No

First published in Bonplandia (Hannover) 8: 103 (1860)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Lorenzi, H., Noblick, L.R., Kahn, F. & Ferreira, E. (2010). Brazilian Flora Arecaceae (Palms): 1-268. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora LTDA, São Paulo, Brazil.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Palmweb - Palms of the World Online

  • Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Lorenzi, H., Noblick, L.R., Kahn, F. & Ferreira, E. (2010). Brazilian Flora Arecaceae (Palms): 1-268. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora LTDA, São Paulo, Brazil.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal R. y Galeano G. (eds.). (2013). Cosechar sin destruir - Aprovechamiento sostenible de palmas colombianas. Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogotá. 244 p.
  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Castañeda, R.R. (1991). Frutas silvestres de Colombia. Instituto Colombiano de Cultura Hispánica.
  • Cárdenas, D., & Ramírez, J. G. (2004). Plantas útiles y su incorporación a los sistemas productivos del departamento del Guaviare (Amazonia Colombiana). Caldasia, 26(1), 95-110.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Garrido, A.M., Cámara-Leret, R., Madriñán, S. (2014). Nombres y usos de las plantas identificadas por los indígenas cubeo de Colombia (Tesis de pregrado). Universidad de Los Andes, Bogotá.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2019). Lista de especies vedadas por la resolución 213 de 1977. 8256 especies. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_plantaspriorizadas_2019
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • Palmweb (2021). Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. http://palmweb.org/node/2
  • Plants for malaria, plants for fever: Medicinal species in Latin America, a bibliographic survey: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Palmweb - Palms of the World Online

    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0