Symphytum asperum Lepech.

First published in Nova Acta Acad. Sci. Imp. Petrop. Hist. Acad. 14: 442 (1805)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is NE. Türkiye to NW. & N. Iran. It is a perennial and grows primarily in the temperate biome.

Distribution

Native to:

Iran, North Caucasus, Transcaucasus, Turkey

Introduced into:

Alaska, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, British Columbia, California, Central European Rus, Connecticut, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East European Russia, Finland, France, Great Britain, Kirgizstan, Maine, Manitoba, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Brunswick, New York, Newfoundland, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Prince Edward I., Québec, Saskatchewan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Ukraine, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin

Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic. Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 1-825. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1988). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 10: 1-590. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan. Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Litvinskaya, S.A. & Murtazaliev, R.A. (2013). Flora of the Northern Caucasus: An Atlas and Identification Book: 1-688. Fiton XXI.
  • Nowak, A. & Nobis, M. (eds.) (2020). Illustrated Flora of Tajikistan and adjacent areas 1: 1-366. PAN, Polish academy of sciences.
  • Riedl, H. (1967). Flora Iranica 48: 1-281. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Ri͡abinina, Z.N. & Kni͡azev, M.S. (2009). Opredelitel sosudistykh rastenii Orenburgskoi oblasti: 1-757. Moskva: KMK.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Tamanyan, K.G. (2011). Checklist of Boraginaceae Juss. family in Armenia. Takhtajania 1: 60-69.
  • Tarikahya-Hacioglu, B. & Erik, S. (2013). Türkiye'de yetisen Symphytum (Boraginaceae) taksonlarinin revizyonu. Ot Sistematik Botanik Dergisi 20(1): 23-74.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic. Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 1-825. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan. Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Litvinskaya, S.A. & Murtazaliev, R.A. (2013). Flora of the Northern Caucasus: An Atlas and Identification Book: 1-688. Fiton XXI.
  • Nowak, A. & Nobis, M. (eds.) (2020). Illustrated Flora of Tajikistan and adjacent areas 1: 1-366. PAN, Polish academy of sciences.
  • Ri͡abinina, Z.N. & Kni͡azev, M.S. (2009). Opredelitel sosudistykh rastenii Orenburgskoi oblasti: 1-757. Moskva: KMK.
  • Tamanyan, K.G. (2011). Checklist of Boraginaceae Juss. family in Armenia. Takhtajania 1: 60-69.
  • Tarikahya-Hacioglu, B. & Erik, S. (2013). Türkiye'de yetisen Symphytum (Boraginaceae) taksonlarinin revizyonu. Ot Sistematik Botanik Dergisi 20(1): 23-74.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
  • USDA, NRCS ( 2021-continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Sources

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images