Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is N. & E. Australia, Norfolk Island.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect; 50-100 cm long; 2-3 -noded. Culm-nodes glabrous. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 2 mm long. Leaf-blades flat, or revolute; 10-25 cm long; 1.25-2 mm wide; aromatic. Leaf-blade surface scabrous; rough abaxially. Leaf-blade margins scabrous. Leaf-blade apex attenuate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Synflorescence compound; linear; lax. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; enclosed. Spatheole 2-2.5 cm long. Peduncle 0.5-1 cm long. Racemes 2; paired; deflexed; 1-2 cm long; bearing 2-6 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; semiterete; ciliate on margins. Rhachis hairs 1.75 mm long. Rhachis internodes linear; 3 mm long. Rhachis internode tip transverse; cupuliform. Raceme-bases flattened; subequal; 1-5 mm long. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels linear; semiterete; 3 mm long; ciliate; with 1.75 mm long hairs.
Sterile
Basal sterile spikelets represented by a single scale; 2 in number (lower raceme); 0 in upper raceme; sessile and pedicelled. Basal sterile spikelet pedicels free; linear. Basal sterile spikelets equalling fertile. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; comprising 2 unequal glumes without lemmas; lanceolate; 5 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes coriaceous; 11 -veined; acuminate; pungent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 4.5-6 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse; inserted. Basal sterile spikelets represented by a single scale; 2 in number (lower raceme); 0 in upper raceme; sessile and pedicelled. Basal sterile spikelet pedicels free; linear. Basal sterile spikelets equalling fertile. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; comprising 2 unequal glumes without lemmas; lanceolate; 5 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes coriaceous; 11 -veined; acuminate; pungent.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 4.5-6 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse; inserted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 1 length of spikelet; chartaceous; 2-keeled; keeled laterally; wingless. Lower glume intercarinal veins distinct; 4-5 in number. Lower glume surface flat. Upper glume lanceolate; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 7 -veined. Upper glume margins ciliolate. Upper glume apex acute, or acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; 4.5 mm long; hyaline; 1 -veined; without lateral veins; ciliolate on margins. Fertile lemma lanceolate; 3.5 mm long; hyaline; without keel. Lemma margins ciliolate. Lemma apex entire, or dentate; 2 -fid; mucronate, or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; straight; 1-12 mm long overall; without a column. Palea absent or minute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid; 2.5 mm long.
Distribution
Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central.
Reference
Andropogoneae. Vickery.

Native to:

New South Wales, Norfolk Is., Northern Territory, Queensland, Victoria

Introduced into:

Cook Is., Fiji, Hawaii, Marianas, New Caledonia, Society Is., Tonga, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Vanuatu

Cymbopogon refractus (R.Br.) A.Camus appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
May 1, 1964 Brown, R. [s.n.], New South Wales K000974933
May 1, 1964 Brown, R. [6177], New South Wales K000974932 isotype
Sep 1, 1933 Domin, K. [s.n.], Queensland K000974930 Unknown type material
Sep 1, 1933 Domin, K. [s.n.], Queensland K000974931 Unknown type material
Beechey, F.W. [s.n.], Tuamotu K000974939 Unknown type material

First published in Rev. Bot. Appl. Agric. Colon. 1: 270 (1921)

Accepted by

  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0