Hymenaea courbaril L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1192 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Mexico to Tropical America. It is a tree and grows primarily in the wet tropical biome. It is has environmental uses and social uses, as animal food, a medicine and invertebrate food and for food.

Descriptions

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 30 - 2000 m.
Distribution
Native and cultivated in Colombia.
Conservation
Near threatened.
Morphology General Habit
Tree.
[UPB]

Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Caribbean, Orinoquia. Elevation range: 30–2000 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Atlántico, Bolívar, Boyacá, Cauca, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Quindío, Santander, Vichada.
Habit
Tree.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Algarroba, Algarrobillo, Algarrobo, Ámbar, Carapa (Cubeo), Copal, Copal americano, Corobore, Corobore., Guapinol, Mangle duro, Nazareno, Pecueca
[UPFC]

Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Morphology General Habit
A tree with 2 leaflets per leaf, very similar to Trachylobium (p. 132), but with non-clawed petals and smooth fruits.
[FTEA]

International Legume Database and Information Service

Conservation
Not Threatened
Ecology
Africa: Cultivated
Morphology General Habit
Perennial, Not climbing, Tree
Vernacular
Abati, Algarobo, Asucar-huain, Avati, Corobore, Courbaril, Guapinol, Jatahy, Jatai, Jataiba, Jatoba, Jutahy, Locust, Nazareno, Pampa Estoraque, Simiri, South American Locust, Stinking Tree, Timbary, Trapuca, West Indian Locust, West Indian Locust Tree
[ILDIS]

Extinction risk predictions for the world's flowering plants to support their conservation (2024). Bachman, S.P., Brown, M.J.M., Leão, T.C.C., Lughadha, E.N., Walker, B.E. https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nph.19592

Conservation
Predicted extinction risk: not threatened. Confidence: confident
[AERP]

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/19891869/20079757

Conservation
LC - least concern
[IUCN]

George R. Proctor (2012). Flora of the Cayman Isands (Second Edition). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Vernacular
LOCUST, STINKING TOE
Morphology General Habit
Tree up to 30 m tall and d.b.h. 2 m (under favourable conditions); bark smooth, greyish, the young branches densely pale-puberulous at first, becoming glabrescent with age; stipules sheathing, ca. 1 cm long, densely puberulous, soon falling
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with petioles up to 14 mm long or more; leaflets subsessile, ovate to elliptic, 4.4–12.8 cm long, coriaceous, strongly asymmetric, acute to acuminate at apex, cuneate or truncate at base, with scattered abaxial dark gland dots
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence axillary, paniculate, up to 10 cm long, densely puberulous; pedicels short and stout; calyx-tube 11–21 mm long, exuding resin, the lobes 14–18 mm long, slightly hooded at apex; petals 5, white, 13–20 mm long, densely gland-dotted; stamens 10, free, exserted; ovary glabrous, the style exserted, the stigma capitate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit oblong, 7.5–10.3 cm long; seeds 1–8, embedded in dryish edible pulp.
Distribution
Grand Cayman, Mexico, C. America, Greater and Lesser Antilles, and S. America.
Ecology
Found in wooded pasture
[Cayman]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
algarroba, algarrobillo, algarrobo, ámbar, copal, pecueca
[UNAL]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa y cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 30 - 2000 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia.
Morphology General Habit
Árbol
Conservation
Casi Amenazada
[CPLC]

International Legume Database and Information Service

Conservation
Not Threatened
Morphology General Habit
Perennial, Not climbing, Tree
Vernacular
Jatoba D'Anta, Jatoba Pitombo, Pau Roxo
[ILDIS]

Uses

Use Food
Infructescences - Edible fruit (Romero Castañeda 1961, Pérez Arbeláez 1996). Seeds - edible (Pérez Arbeláez 1996).
Use Materials
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Wood
Entire plant - Used for furniture (López-Camacho et al 2016). Used for crafts (López-Camacho et al 2016). Used for construction (López-Camacho et al 2016).
Use Materials Gums Resins
Amber-coloured resin is used for incense (Romero Castañeda 1961). The resins is used to make waterproof canoes (Linares 1994).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).
[UPB]

Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Invertebrate Food
Used as invertebrate food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Social
Social uses.
[UPFC]

Use
Chemical products, Domestic, Wood
[ILDIS]

Common Names

English
Anami Gum
Spanish
Algarrobo, algarroba, pecueca, algarrobillo, copal, ámbar, mangle duro, guapinol, nazareno, copal americano, corobore.

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of the Cayman Islands

    • Flora of the Cayman Islands
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • 'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • International Legume Database and Information Service

    • International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/