Genus:
Ipomoea L.

Ipomoea alba L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America. It is used as a poison and a medicine, has environmental uses and for food.

[FZ]

Convolvulaceae, Maria Leonor Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 8:1. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Ornamental species, annual or perennial, glabrous or rarely pubescent.
Morphology Stem
Stems twining or prostrate, thick, smooth or rarely muriculate.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-lamina ovate or circular, in outline, entire or 3-lobed, 6–20 × 5–16 cm., acute, acuminate or obtuse at the mucronulate apex, cordate at the base; petiole 5–20 cm. long, slender.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence axillary, 1-several-flowered; peduncle stout, 1–24 cm. long; pedicels 0·7–1·5 cm. long, lengthening to 2·5–3 cm. long and becoming very thick and clavate in fruit.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals unequal, elliptic, coriaceous, often reflexed in fruit and glabrous; outer 2–3 sepals 5–12 mm. long with long awn-like appendage 4–10 mm. long at the apex; inner ones longer, 8–15 mm. long, shortly mucronulate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla opening at night, scented, white or greenish-cream below; tube cylindrical 7–12 × 0·5 cm.; limb salver-shaped, 11–16 cm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule mucronulate 2·5–3 cm. long, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 4, ovoid, brown or black, glabrous and smooth.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa y cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1780 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Llanura del Caribe, Pacífico, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Trepadora
Conservation
No Evaluada

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
batata, batatilla, dama de noche

[KBu]

Wood, J.R.I., Carine, M.A., Harris, D. et al. 2015. Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in Bolivia. Kew Bulletin 70: 31. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-015-9592-7

Conservation
Least Concern (LC).
Ecology
A pantropical weedy species, not certainly known as a native anywhere. In Bolivia widely distributed in disturbed damp bushy places, particularly along shaded tropical streams, mostly below about 1600 m where it behaves as if native. It is also cultivated growing in gardens as high as Sucre (2800 m) and Cochabamba (2600 m) as well as in the lowlands. The list of specimens below does not reflect the total distribution as cultivated plants are not included and collections are not known from areas where the plant is known to grow such as the Zongo Valley near La Paz.
Morphology General Habit
Vigorous scrambling or trailing plant, stems to 10 m, glabrous, sometimes armed with soft spines
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate, 5 – 15 × 4 – 14 cm, ovate, sometimes lobed to about one third, acuminate to a fine hair point, cordate at the base, auricles sometimes with broad teeth; petioles 3 – 18 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule ovoid, c. 3 cm long, glabrous; seeds 11 – 13 mm long, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence of 1 – 3-flowered, pedunculate, axillary cymes; peduncles 2 – 9 (– 20) cm, stout; bracteoles caducous, not seen; pedicels 5 – 15 mm, swollen below flower; sepals unequal, outer sepals 15 – 25 × 4 – 6 mm, lanceolate with a long awn 5 – 12 mm in length, green with white margins inner sepals 12 – 20 mm including a 2 – 5 mm long awn, ovate, whitish with green midrib; corolla with a cylindrical tube 5 – 12 cm long and a spreading, white limb 4 – 5 cm in diam., glabrous
Note
Unmistakeable when in flower but fruiting material is difficult to distinguish from Ipomoea muricata except by the longer aristate points of the sepals. Although it has been collected in flower in almost every month of the year, it is most commonly found in flower at the end of the summer rainy season from February to July. The flowers open at night and collapse early in the morning except on cloudy days.
Type
Type: India, Rheede, Hort Ind. Malabar 11: 103. t. 50 (1692), designated by Verdcourt in Hubbard & Milne-Redhead (1963: 130).

[FTEA]

Convolvulaceae, B. Verdcourt (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1963

Morphology General Habit
A glabrous or very rarely pubescent, annual or perennial; stems prostrate or twining, up to 2.4 m. long, smooth or rarely muriculate.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blade ovate or orbicular in outline, entire or 3-lobed, 6–20 cm. long, 5–16 cm. wide, acute, acuminate or obtuse at the mucronulate apex, cordate at the base; petiole 5–20 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary, 1–several-flowered; peduncle stout, 1–24 cm. long; pedicels 0.7–1.5 cm. long, lengthening to 2.5–3 cm. long and becoming very thick in fruit.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals elliptic, unequal; outer 2–3 sepals 5–12 mm. long, 6–7 mm. wide, with a long awn-like appendage 4–10 mm. long at the apex (Fig. 22/4, p. 102); inner sepals longer, 8–15 mm. long, 9 mm. wide, shortly mucronulate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla opening at night, scented, white or greenish-cream below; tube cylindrical, 7–12 cm. long, 5 mm. wide; limb salver-shaped, 11–16 cm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule ovoid, 2.5–3 cm. tall, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 4, ovoid, white to black, glabrous, 10–12 mm. long, 7–9 mm. wide.
Habitat
Waste places, rubbish heaps, locally established in upland and riverine forests etc.; 290–1000 m.
Distribution
originally American but now pantropical as an escape and also cultivated K1 K4 K7 T3 U2

[FWTA]

Convolvulaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
A strong twiner with stems smooth or sparingly tuberculed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Large white flowers 4-6 in. across the limb, exping fragrant at night
Ecology
Wild in secondary vegetation, but often cultivated for ornament.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Guiana Shield, Caribbean, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–1780 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Bolívar, Cesar, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Huila, Magdalena, Meta, Putumayo, Quindío, Santander, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Climbing.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC. National Red List of Colombia (2021): Potential LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), desert, artificial - terrestrial.

[UPFC]
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Central American Pac, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Line Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, New South Wales, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Queensland, Réunion, Samoa, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Ipomoea alba L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jun 1, 2006 Harvey, Y.B. [128], Cameroon K000339785 No
Jul 1, 2003 Gosline, G. [218], Cameroon K000008700 No
Jul 1, 2003 Ghogue, J.-P. [470], Cameroon K000008699 No
Jul 1, 2003 Sidwell, K. [403], Cameroon K000008698 No
Aug 14, 1996 Gautier, L. [2967], Madagascar K000384521 No
Mar 1, 1996 Lane, P. [455], Cameroon K000008696 No
Mar 1, 1996 Cable, S. [889], Cameroon K000008697 No
Mar 1, 1996 Williams, S. [144], Cameroon K000008695 No
Jan 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [7709], Cameroon K000008694 No
Jan 1, 1996 Rasoavimbahoaka, F. [755], Madagascar K000384520 No
Jan 1, 1988 Manning, S.D. [522], Cameroon K000028518 No
Jan 1, 1986 Sperling, C.R. [5782], Brazil K000944596 Yes
Feb 20, 1985 Balfour, I.B. [s.n.], Madagascar K000384523 No
Feb 20, 1985 Balfour, I.B. [s.n.], Madagascar K000384524 No
Apr 29, 1981 Lowe, J. [3965], Brazil K000944595 Yes
Jan 1, 1979 Spruce, R. [s.n.] K000395037 Yes
Jan 1, 1977 Prance, G.T. [12008], Brazil K000944592 Yes
Mar 1, 1971 Hooker, J.D. [s.n.], Cape Verde K001134238 Yes
Mar 1, 1971 Riedel [694], Brazil K000944583 Yes
Mar 1, 1971 Burchell [8934], Brazil K000944587 Yes
Mar 1, 1971 Burchell [9078], Brazil K000944588 Yes
Mar 1, 1970 Zollinger, H. [445], Jawa K000830797 Yes
Mar 1, 1970 Baron, R. [6494], Madagascar K000384525 No
Mar 1, 1970 Zollinger, H. [445], Jawa K000830796 Yes
Jan 1, 1970 Burchell [8888], Brazil K000944590 Yes
Jan 1, 1970 Hinton, G.B. [7587], Guerrero K000465171 No
Jan 1, 1970 Spruce, R. [1626], Brazil K000944594 Yes
Jan 1, 1970 Gardner [1771], Brazil K000944585 Yes
Jan 1, 1960 Gevieski, A. [81], Brazil K000944589 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [11195], Guerrero K000465170 No
Schatz, G.E. [2721], Madagascar K000384522 No
Hinton, G.B. [12698], Michoacán K000465159 No
Barbosa, M.R. [115], Brazil K000944586 Yes
Hage, J.L. [1174], Brazil K000944591 Yes
Spruce [1626], Brazil K000944593 Yes
Wohlhauser, S. [60082], Madagascar K000384519 No
Hartweg [97], Mexico Ipomoea longiflora K000612743 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 161 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Adams, C.D. in Adams, C.D. (1972). Flowering Plants of Jamaica: 601-614. University of the West Indies, Mona.
  • Andrews, F.W. in Andrews, F.W. (1956). Convolvulaceae. The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 102-125. T.Buncle & co., LTD., Arbroath, Scotland.
  • Austin, D. F. & M. Costea in Zuloaga, F. O., O. Morrone, & M. J. Belgrano (2008). Convolvulaceae. Catálogo de las plantas vascualres del Cono Sur 2: 1936-1966. Missouri Bot. Garden.
  • Austin, D. F. (1982). Flora of Ecuador 15: 3-99. Botanical Institute, University of Göteborg, Riksmuseum, Stockholm.
  • Austin, D.F. & Cavalcante, P.B. (1982). Convolvuláceas da Amazônia. Publicações Avulsas do Museo Goeldi 36: 1-134.
  • Austin, D.F. & Huáman, Z. (1996). A synopsis of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the Americas. Taxon 45: 3-38.
  • Austin, D.F. & S. Ghazanfar in E. Nasir & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1979). Convolvulaceae. Flora of West Pakistan 126: 1-64.
  • Austin, D.F. (1975). Convolvulaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 62: 157-224.
  • Austin, D.F. in Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Convolvulaceae. Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana): 87-88. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Austin, D.F. in Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Convolvulaceae. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1161-1190. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Austin, D.F. in Dassanayake (ed.) (1980). Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon Convolvulaceae. A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1: 288-363. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Austin, D.F. in Lasser, T. (1982). Convolvulaceae. Flora de Venezuela 8(3): 15-226. Fundación Educación Ambiental.
  • Austin, D.F. in Stevens, W.D. & al. (eds.) (2001). Convolvulaceae. Flora de Nicaragua 1: 653-679. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Austin, D.F. in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (1998). Convolvulaceae. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 4: 377-424. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Austin, D.F. in Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, & S.H. Sohmer (1999). Man. Fl. Plts. Hawai'I Convolvulaceae. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'I 1: 548-564. University of Hawaii Press.
  • Balick, M.J., Nee, M.H. & Atha, D.E. in Balick, M.J., Nee, M.H. & Atha, D.E. (2000). Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize with Common Names an Uses: i-x, 1-246. New York Botanic Garden Press, New York.
  • Bhellum, B.L. & Magotra, R. (2011). Flora of Jammu and Kashmir state (family Convolvulaceae): a census. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 35: 732-736.
  • Bianchini, R.S., Ferreira, P.P.A. in Forzza, R.C. et al. (2010). Convolvulaceae. Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.
  • Bosser, J. & H. Heine (2000). Fl. Mascar. Convolvulaceae. Flore des Mascareignes 127: 1-63. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Carranza, E. (2007). Convolvulaceae I, in Fl. Bajío. Flora del Bajío y de regiones adyacentes 151: 1-129.
  • Carranza, E. (2015). Flora del Valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán 135: 1-128. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Christophersen, E. (1938). Flow. Pl. Samoa II: Convolvulaceae. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 154: 37-39.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Deroin, T. (2001). Convolvulaceae. Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 171: 11-287. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
  • Fang, R.-Z. & Staples, G. (1995). Convolvulaceae. Flora of China 16: 271-325. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet. M.-H. (1977). Flora of Micronesia 3: Convolvulaceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 36: 1-34.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Gonçalves, M.L. (1987). Convolvulaceae. Flora Zambesiaca 8(1): 9-129. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Gooding, E.G.B. & A.R. Loveless in Gooding, E.G.B. & A.R. Loveless (1965). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Barbados: 332-344. Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
  • Green, P.S. (1994). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Australia 49: 305-310. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Hancock, I.R. & C.P. Henderson (1988). Convolvulaceae. Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 131-132.
  • Harris, D.J. (2002). The vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Heine, H. (1984). Fl. Nouv. Caléd. & Dépend. Convolvulaceae. Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 13: 1-91. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Heine, H. in Hutchinson, J. & Dalziel, J.M. (1963). Convolvulaceae. Flora of West Tropical Africa, second edition 2: 335-352 + 496. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations.
  • Hill, A.W. & Sandwith, N. in Williams, R.O. (1953). Fl. Trinidad & Tobago Convolvs.. Flora of Trinidad and Tobago 2(4): 210-240. Government Printing Office, Port-of-Spain.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jarvis, C.E. in Jarvis, C.E. (2007). Convolvulaceae. Order out of Chaos Linnean Soc. London & Nat. Hist. Museum.
  • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae. Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kartesz, J.T. in Kartesz, J.T. (1994). Convolvulaceae. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland: 217-221. Timber Press.
  • Khan, M.S. (1985). Fl. Bangladesh Convolvulaceae. Flora of Bangladesh 30: 1-59. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands. Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Kress, W.J., R.A. DeFilipps, E. Farr, & Y.Y. Kyi in Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Cklist. Myanmar Convolvulaceae. Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 197-201. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
  • Lejoly, J. & S. Lisowski (1992). Les genres Merremia et Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) dans la Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi). Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica 37: 21-125.
  • Leon, H. & Alain, H. in Leon, H. (1957). Convolvulaceae. Flora de Cuba 4: 218-248. Cultural S. A., La Habana.
  • Liogier, A.H. in Liogier, A. H. (1994). Convolvulaceae. La flora de la Española 6: 49-114. Universidad Central del Este.
  • Liogier, H.A. & L.F. Martorell in Liogier, H.A. & Martorell, L.F. (2000). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: a Systematic Synopsis: 162-167. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan.
  • Lisowski, S. in Lisowski, S. (2009). Convolvulaceae. Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée: 136-145. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Long, R. W. & O. Lakela in Long, R. W. & O. Lakela (1976). Convolvulaceae. A flora of tropical Florida: 711-724. Banyan Books.
  • McDonald, Andrew (1994). Convolvulaceae. Flora de Veracruz 77: 1-133. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones sobre Recursos Bióticos, Xalapa, Veracruz.
  • McPherson, G. [w/ D.F. Austin] in Braco, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Convolvulaceae. Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru: 365-374. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Meeuse, A.D.J. & W.G. Welman (2000). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Southern Africa 28: 1-138. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
  • Mill, R.R. (1999). Fl. Bhutan Convolvulaceae. Flora of Bhutan 2(2): 834-862. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • O'Donell, C.A. (1959). Convolvuloideas de Uruguay. Lilloa 29: 349-376. Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Instituto 'Miguel Lillo'.
  • O'Donell, C.A. (1959). Las especies americanas de Ipomoea L. sect. Quamoclit (Moench) Griseb.. Lilloa 29: 19-86. Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Instituto 'Miguel Lillo'.
  • Ooststroom, S.J. van & R.D. Hoogland (1953). Convolvulaceae. Flora Malesiana 4: 388-512. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Powell, Dulcie A. (1979). The Convolvulaceae of the Lesser Antilles. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 60: 219-271.
  • Press, J.R., K.K. Shrestha, & D.A. Sutton (2012). Nepal Cklist. Convolvulaceae. Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal - online Natural History Museum et al.
  • Sachet, M.-H. (1975). Fl. Marquesas Convolvulaceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 23: 27-34.
  • Smith, A.C. in Smith, A.C. (1991). Fl. Vitiensis Nova Convolvulaceae. Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 41-69. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Staples, G. (2018). Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêt-Nam 36: 1-406. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Staples, G. (with P. Traiperm) (2010). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Thailand 10: 330-468. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Staples, G., Phoutthavong, K., Traiperm, P. & Pornpongrueng, P. (2014). A corrected and expanded checklist of Convolvulaceae from Lao PDR. Thai Journal of Botany 6: 79-87.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1977). Convolvulaceae. Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 219: 97-98, 189.
  • Tisserant, P. Ch. (1950). Catalogue de la flora de l'Oubangui-Chari. Mémoires de l'Institut d'Études Centrafricaines 2: 1-166.
  • Trusty, J.L., Kesler, H.C. & Delgado, G.H. (2006). Vascular flora of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 57: 247-355.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea). Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1963). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-161.
  • Wagner, W.L. & D.H. Lorence in Wagner, W. L. & D. H. Lorence. (2002-ongoing). Fl. Marquesas CNV - April 2012. 2002-. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website. Smithsonian Institution & National Tropical Bot. Garden.
  • Welsh, S.L. in Welsh, S.L. (1998). Fl. Societensis Convolvulaceae. Flora Societensis: 83-88. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wiggins, I.L. in Wiggins, I.L & D.M. Porter (1971). Convolvulaceae. Flora of the Galápagos Islands: 367-383. Stanford University Press.
  • Wood, J.R.I., Carine, M.A., Harris, D., Wilkin, P., Williams, B. & Scotland, R.W. (2015). Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in Bolivia. Kew Bulletin 70(31): 1-124.
  • Wood, J.R.I., Muñoz-Rodríguez P., Williams, B.R.M., Scotland, R.W. (2020). A foundation monograph of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the New World. PhytoKeys 143: 1-823.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil. Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.

Not accepted by

  • Boldingh, I. in Boldingh, I. (1909). Convolvulaceae. Flora of the Futch West Indian Islands, vol. I: St. Eustatius, Saba, and St. Martin 1: 161-163. E.J. Brill. [Cited as Calonyction speciosum.]
  • Hallier, H. (1897). Bausteine zu einer Monographie der Convolvulaceen. 6. Die Gattung Calonyction. Bulletin de l'Herbier Boissier 5: 1020-1052. l'Herbier Boissier. [Cited as Calonyction bona-nox.]
  • Matuda, E. in Matuda, E. (1966). Las Convolvulaceas del estado de Mexico. Las Convolvulaceae del estado de Mexico: 1-56. Govierno del Estado de Mexico, Direccion de Agricultura y Ganaderia. [Cited as Calonyction aculeatum.]
  • Standley, P. C. (1938). Convolvulaceae. Publications of Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series 18(3): 960-974. [Cited as Calonyction aculeatum.]
  • Standley, P.C. & Williams, L.O. (1970). Convolvulaceae. Fieldiana Botany New Series 24 (9: 1,2): 4-85. Field Museum of Natural History. [Cited as Calonyction aculeatum.]
  • Standley, P.C. in Standley, P.A. (1924). Convolvulaceae. Trees and Shrubs of Mexico, Convolvulaceae pp. 1194-1208. 23(4): 1194-1208. Contributions U.S. Natl. Herbar. 23(4) 1924. [Cited as Calonyction aculeatum.]
  • Wiggins, I.L. in Wiggins, I.L. (1980). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Baja California: 373-385. Stanford Univ. Press. [Cited as Calonyction aculeatum.]

Literature

Kew Bulletin

  • Linnaeus 1753: 161.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Meeuse in Bothalia 6: 765.
  • Sp. Pl. 161 (1753)
  • van Ooststr. in Blumea 3: 547

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Andrews, F.W. in Andrews, F.W. (1956). Convolvulaceae. The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 102-125. T.Buncle & co., LTD., Arbroath, Scotland.
  • Austin, D. F. & M. Costea in Zuloaga, F. O., O. Morrone, & M. J. Belgrano (2008). Convolvulaceae. Catálogo de las plantas vascualres del Cono Sur 2: 1936-1966. Missouri Bot. Garden.
  • Austin, D. F. (1982). Flora of Ecuador 15: 3-99. Botanical Institute, University of Göteborg, Riksmuseum, Stockholm.
  • Austin, D.F. & Cavalcante, P.B. (1982). Convolvuláceas da Amazônia. Publicações Avulsas do Museo Goeldi 36: 1-134.
  • Austin, D.F. & Huáman, Z. (1996). A synopsis of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the Americas. Taxon 45: 3-38.
  • Austin, D.F. & S. Ghazanfar in E. Nasir & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1979). Convolvulaceae. Flora of West Pakistan 126: 1-64.
  • Austin, D.F. (1990). Annotated checklist of New Mexican Convolvulaceae. Sida 14: 273-286.
  • Austin, D.F. in Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Convolvulaceae. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1161-1190. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Austin, D.F. in Dassanayake (ed.) (1980). Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon Convolvulaceae. A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1: 288-363. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Austin, D.F. in Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, & S.H. Sohmer (1999). Man. Fl. Plts. Hawai'I Convolvulaceae. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'I 1: 548-564. University of Hawaii Press.
  • Baker, J.G. & A.B. Rendle in Thiselton-Dyer, W.T. et al. (eds.) (1905). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Tropical Africa 4(2): 62-206. Secretary of State for the Colonies.
  • Bhellum, B.L. & Magotra, R. (2011). Flora of Jammu and Kashmir state (family Convolvulaceae): a census. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 35: 732-736.
  • Bianchini, R.S., Ferreira, P.P.A. in Forzza, R.C. et al. (2010). Convolvulaceae. Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.
  • Bosser, J. & H. Heine (2000). Fl. Mascar. Convolvulaceae. Flore des Mascareignes 127: 1-63. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Brown, F.B.H. (1935). Fl. SE Polynesia Convolvulaceae. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 130: 237-242.
  • Carranza, E. (2007). Convolvulaceae I, in Fl. Bajío. Flora del Bajío y de regiones adyacentes 151: 1-129.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Clarke, C.B. in Hooker, J.D. (1883). Fl. Br. India Convolvulaceae. Flora of British India 4: 179-228 + 734.
  • Deroin, T. (2001). Convolvulaceae. Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 171: 11-287. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
  • Fang, R.-Z. & Staples, G. (1995). Convolvulaceae. Flora of China 16: 271-325. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Florence, J., Waldren, S. & Chepstow-Lusty, A.J. (1995). The flora of the Pitcairn islands: a review. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 56: 79-119.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet. M.-H. (1977). Flora of Micronesia 3: Convolvulaceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 36: 1-34.
  • Gagnepain & Courchet in H. Lecomte (1915). Flore Indo-Chine Convolvulaceae. Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 4: 228-313.
  • Green, P.S. (1994). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Australia 49: 305-310. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Grisebach, A.H.R. in Grisebach, A. H. R. (1862). Convolvulaceae. Flora of the British West Indian Isands: 466-476. Lovell Reeve.
  • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides. Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique Colonial de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
  • Hallier, H. (1897). Bausteine zu einer Monographie der Convolvulaceen. 6. Die Gattung Calonyction. Bulletin de l'Herbier Boissier 5: 1020-1052. l'Herbier Boissier.
  • Harris, D.J. (2002). The vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Heine, H. (1984). Fl. Nouv. Caléd. & Dépend. Convolvulaceae. Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 13: 1-91. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Heine, H. in Hutchinson, J. & Dalziel, J.M. (1963). Convolvulaceae. Flora of West Tropical Africa, second edition 2: 335-352 + 496. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations.
  • Herrera, K., Lorence, D.H., Flynn, T. & Balick, M.J. (2010). Checklist of the Vascular plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with local names and uses. Allertonia 10: 1-204.
  • Hill, A.W. & Sandwith, N. in Williams, R.O. (1953). Fl. Trinidad & Tobago Convolvs.. Flora of Trinidad and Tobago 2(4): 210-240. Government Printing Office, Port-of-Spain.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae. Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
  • Khan, M.S. (1985). Fl. Bangladesh Convolvulaceae. Flora of Bangladesh 30: 1-59. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands. Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Lejoly, J. & S. Lisowski (1992). Les genres Merremia et Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) dans la Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi). Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica 37: 21-125.
  • Liogier, H.A. & L.F. Martorell in Liogier, H.A. & Martorell, L.F. (2000). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: a Systematic Synopsis: 162-167. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan.
  • Lisowski, S. in Lisowski, S. (2009). Convolvulaceae. Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée: 136-145. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Matuda, E. in Matuda, E. (1966). Las Convolvulaceas del estado de Mexico. Las Convolvulaceae del estado de Mexico: 1-56. Govierno del Estado de Mexico, Direccion de Agricultura y Ganaderia.
  • McPherson, G. [w/ D.F. Austin] in Braco, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Convolvulaceae. Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru: 365-374. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Meeuse, A.D.J. & W.G. Welman (2000). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Southern Africa 28: 1-138. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
  • Mill, R.R. (1999). Fl. Bhutan Convolvulaceae. Flora of Bhutan 2(2): 834-862. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Ooststroom, S.J. van & R.D. Hoogland (1953). Convolvulaceae. Flora Malesiana 4: 388-512. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Powell, Dulcie A. (1979). The Convolvulaceae of the Lesser Antilles. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 60: 219-271.
  • Press, J.R., K.K. Shrestha, & D.A. Sutton (2012). Nepal Cklist. Convolvulaceae. Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal - online Natural History Museum et al.
  • Shinners, L. in Correll, D.S. & M.C Johnston (1970). Convolvulaceae. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas: 1241-1261. Texas Research Foundation.
  • Smith, A.C. in Smith, A.C. (1991). Fl. Vitiensis Nova Convolvulaceae. Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 41-69. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Staples, G., Phoutthavong, K., Traiperm, P. & Pornpongrueng, P. (2014). A corrected and expanded checklist of Convolvulaceae from Lao PDR. Thai Journal of Botany 6: 79-87.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Trusty, J.L., Kesler, H.C. & Delgado, G.H. (2006). Vascular flora of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 57: 247-355.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1963). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-161.
  • Wagner, W.L. & D.H. Lorence in Wagner, W. L. & D. H. Lorence. (2002-ongoing). Fl. Marquesas CNV - April 2012. 2002-. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website. Smithsonian Institution & National Tropical Bot. Garden.
  • Webb, C.J., W.R. Sykes, & P.J. Garnock-Jones (1988). Fl. New Zealand Convolvulaceae - naturalised. Flora of New Zealand 4: 547-560+1289. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Welsh, S.L. in Welsh, S.L. (1998). Fl. Societensis Convolvulaceae. Flora Societensis: 83-88. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Whitmore, T.C. in Whitmore, T.C. (1966). Guide For. Brit. Solomon Isld. Convolvulaceae. Guide to the Forests of the British Solomon Islands: 187, 191. Oxford Univ. Press.
  • Wiggins, I.L. in Wiggins, I.L & D.M. Porter (1971). Convolvulaceae. Flora of the Galápagos Islands: 367-383. Stanford University Press.
  • Wiggins, I.L. in Wiggins, I.L. (1980). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Baja California: 373-385. Stanford Univ. Press.
  • Wilder, G. P. (1934). The flora of Makatea CNV. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 120: 1-49.
  • Wilder, G.P. (1931). Fl. Rarotonga Convolvulaceae. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 86: 1-113.
  • Wood, J.R.I., Muñoz-Rodríguez P., Williams, B.R.M., Scotland, R.W. (2020). A foundation monograph of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the New World. PhytoKeys 143: 1-823.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2015). Listado de especies de Productos No Maderables del caribe colombiano. 366 registros, aportados por: Garcia, H. (Contacto del Recurso), López Camacho, R. (Creador del recurso), Espitia Palencia, L. (Proveedor del metadatos). Versión 2.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_bst-caribe_plantae_2015
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2019). Lista de especies vedadas por la resolución 213 de 1977. 8256 especies. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_plantaspriorizadas_2019
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Sp. Pl. : 161 (1753).
  • Meeuse in Bothalia 6 : 765 (1958).
  • van Ooststr. in Fl. Males., ser. 1, 4 (4) : 480, fig. 53 (1953).

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Bulletin

    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0