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This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders.
Lantana trifolia (Verbenaceae)

[FTEA]

Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or subshrubby herb 0.9–3 m. tall with often purplish adpressed or subadpressed pubescent stems or sometimes the indumentum of short to long ± spreading bristly hairs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves aromatic, opposite or more usually in whorls of 3(–4), ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate or ovate, ovate-oblong or elliptic, (1.5–)5–14 cm. long, (0.5–)2–6 cm. wide, mostly 2.5–3 times as long as wide, narrowed to an acute or rarely subobtuse apex, ± cuneate at the base, finely crenate or crenate-serrate, glandular, adpressed pubescent to scabrid with tubercle-based hairs above, densely to sparsely puberulous, shortly tomentose, velvety or rarely spreading pilose beneath; venation ± impressed or not impressed above; petiole 2–5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Peduncles 1–2 (i.e. up to 6 per node), 1.5–13 cm. long, mostly shorter than the subtending leaf, elongating somewhat in fruit, the heads of flowers hemispherical, 0.8–1 cm. long, 1.3–1.7 cm. wide, becoming subcylindric in fruit and 1.7–4.5(–5) cm. long; lower bracts lanceolate to narrowly ovate-elliptic or ovate, (0.4–)0.8–1.4 cm. long, (0.6–)3–6.5 mm. wide, long-acuminate or acute, the upper bracts smaller.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 1.2–2 mm. long, pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, mauve-white, pinkish white, or usually pink or purple, usually with yellow throat; tube 5–7 mm. long, with limb 4–9 mm. wide; lower lip (4–)5–5.5 mm. long and wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupes mauve to purple, subglobose, 3–3.5 mm. long, 2.5–3 mm. wide; axis of fruiting spike up to 5 cm. long.
Habitat
Grassland, bushland, bracken associations, Brachystegia woodland, forest/grass edges, ?forest, also abandoned cultivations; 0–2400 m.
Distribution
K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8 widespread in Africa but probably introduced from America, Central and S. America, West Indies, also introduced into various parts of Asia and some Pacific islands

[FWTA]

Verbenaceae, H. Huber, F. N. Hepper & R. D. Meikle. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
A woody herb or subshrub, to about 6 ft. high, sparsely branched
Morphology Stem
Hairy stems
Morphology Leaves
Rugose scabrid leaves in threes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers pink or mauve
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits purple.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

Type
Type from West Indies.
Morphology General
A weak-stemmed shrub 0.9–3 m tall, or sometimes a woody subshrub
Morphology Branches
Branches somewhat 4-angled, often purplish, with internodes 2.5–10 cm long, ± weakly strigose with short ± tubercle-based hairs usually curving or ± appressed antrorse, or somewhat hispid with stouter spreading bristle-like hairs, usually with sessile glands intermixed Branches somewhat 4-angled, often purplish, with internodes 2.5–10 cm long, ± weakly strigose with short ± tubercle-based hairs usually curving or ± appressed antrorse, or somewhat hispid with stouter spreading bristle-like hairs, usually with sessile glands intermixed.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves aromatic, mostly 3-whorled with some leaves opposite, petiolate; lamina (2.5)5–14 × (1)2–6 cm, mostly 6–8 × 3–4.5 cm, usually 2.5–3 times longer than wide, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, or ovate to ovate-oblong or elliptic, ± attenuate towards the apex and ± acute, ± cuneate at the base and somewhat decurrent into the petiole or sometimes rounded and slightly contracted at the base, closely crenate or crenate-serrate on the margins and 24–34(39) shallowly toothed on each side, membranous to somewhat coriaceous becoming somewhat rigid on drying, ± concolorous, shortly and sparsely hispidulous to strigose on upper surface, becoming ± scabridulous with the tubercle-bases persisting in older leaves, puberulous or shortly tomentose beneath, rarely pilose; venation somewhat impressed above but lamina not bullate ± raised or obscure beneath; petiole slender Leaves aromatic, mostly 3-whorled with some leaves opposite, petiolate; lamina (2.5)5–14 × (1)2–6 cm, mostly 6–8 × 3–4.5 cm, usually 2.5–3 times longer than wide, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, or ovate to ovate-oblong or elliptic, ± attenuate towards the apex and ± acute, ± cuneate at the base and somewhat decurrent into the petiole or sometimes rounded and slightly contracted at the base, closely crenate or crenate-serrate on the margins and 24–34(39) shallowly toothed on each side, membranous to somewhat coriaceous becoming somewhat rigid on drying, ± concolorous, shortly and sparsely hispidulous to strigose on upper surface, becoming ± scabridulous with the tubercle-bases persisting in older leaves, puberulous or shortly tomentose beneath, rarely pilose; venation somewhat impressed above but lamina not bullate ± raised or obscure beneath; petiole slender.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncles usually 1 per leaf axil or sometimes 2 (up to 6 per node), somewhat rigid, straight, slender, 1.5–9(10) cm long at anthesis, usually shorter than the subtending leaf (petiole included), increasing to 11 cm long in fruit Peduncles 2 per leaf axil, at least in some leaves, giving a maximum 6 peduncles per node Peduncles usually 1 per leaf axil or sometimes 2 (up to 6 per node), somewhat rigid, straight, slender, 1.5–9(10) cm long at anthesis, usually shorter than the subtending leaf (petiole included), increasing to 11 cm long in fruit.
Morphology General Indumentum
Indumentum on the stem, branches and peduncles consisting of short ± tubercle-based hairs usually curving or ± appressed antrorse
Ecology
Habitat as for L. trifolia forma trifolia ; 1230–1600 m. Habitat as for L. trifolia forma trifolia ; 700–1728 m. Miombo woodland often on termitaria, riverine vegetation and dambo margins; also in montane grassland and evergreen forest margins; 816–1750 m.
Note
Gilges 358 (K; SRGH), from Barotseland in Zambia, was determined by Meikle as L. subtracta Hiern, a species known only from Angola.  However, it differs from the Angolan species in many characters: stem erect (not prostrate as in L. subtracta ), with longer internodes, covered with a dense indumentum of longer hairs; leaves somewhat attenuate towards the apex, subtomentose on the lower surface (whereas they are sparsely hairy with the hairs short and appressed in L. subtracta ), with smaller marginal crenae; bracts longer and a little broader, etc.  It is possible that the specimen Gilges 358, is a hybrid between L. trifolia L. and L. machadoi R. Fern.  The latter species was described from the Angolan province of Moxico which is adjacent to Barotseland (cf. R. Fernandes in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 61 : 142 (1989)). Specimens of forma hirsuta from the Flora Zambesiaca area mostly have opposite relatively broad leaves and white corollas, and in these characters are similar to plants from Tanzania which are probably a hybrid between forma hirsuta and L. viburnoides var. richardii (cf. R. Fernandes in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 61 : 195 (1989)).  However, the Flora Zambesiaca area plants have shorter peduncles and narrower bracts more attenuate-cuspidate towards the apex and are therefore distinct from the hybrid. Moldenke described L. mearnsii for a plant frequently found in east Africa with 3-whorled leaves and pink corollas.  However, many intermediates occur and it cannot be kept separate from L. trifolia. Some specimens with opposite leaves and appearing intermediate between L. trifolia and L. viburnoides subsp. richardii may represent another probable hybrid.  Such specimens inclu de: Malawi N: Mzimba, Whyte 2504 (FHO; K).  Mozambique N: Massangulo, Pedro & Pedrógão 3515 (LMA; LMU). Moldenke (Fifth Summ. Verbenaceae: 535–541, 1971), has listed many other synonyms, but the type specimens of these have not been verified by me. This species is widespread and very polymorphic in tropical regions.  In the Flora Zambesiaca area at least, the variation exhibited is of little taxonomic value since intermediates occur between most characters.  However, some plants from southern Malawi ( Buchanan 326 and 784 from Shire Highlands, Best 180 from Zomba and Exell, Mendonça & Wild 894 from Namwera Escarpment) and Niassa Province in Mozambique ( Gomes e Sousa 1274 and 1305 from Massangulo) may be distinguished by the combination of their longer peduncles and broader bracts, and by the leaf bases less attenuate-decurrent on the petiole.  More material needs to be seen before these plants can be recognized as representing a separate variety.  In the meantime three forms are recognized in the Flora Zambesiaca area.
Distribution
District code: MOZ N, MOZ W, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ T. District code: ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM S, ZIM C, ZIM E, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ Z, MOZ N, MOZ W, MOZ S, MOZ S, MOZ N, MOZ N, MOZ N. Mozambique Malawi Mozambique Zambia Malawi Zambia Mozambique Mozambique Zambia Widespread throughout tropical America, Hawaiian Islands, Indonesia, Burma, India and Sri Lanka.  Also in Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Nigeria, Dem. Rep. Congo, Angola and probably elsewhere. Also in Angola and Dem. Rep. Congo. Native of tropical America, it is now widely spread throughout nearly all tropical regions.  In Africa it is found in Angola, Dem. Rep. Congo, S Nigeria, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. Zimbabwe Malawi Mozambique Zambia District code: MOZ W, MAL N, MOZ N.
Morphology General Habit
A weak-stemmed shrub 0.9–3 m tall, or sometimes a woody subshrub.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowering spikes 0.8–1.0 × 1.3–1.7 cm, hemispheric, up to 1.7–4.5(5) cm and ± cylindrical in fruit; lower bracts 8–12(14) × 3–5(6.5) mm and ovate-elliptic tapering into an attenuate-subulate apex, or 7.5–9.5 × 4–4.5 and ovate with a tapering-acute apex; upper bracts successively smaller; spike-axes up to 5 cm long, with scattered scars. Flowering spikes 0.8–1.0 × 1.3–1.7 cm, hemispheric, up to 1.7–4.5(5) cm and ± cylindrical in fruit; lower bracts 8–12(14) × 3–5(6.5) mm and ovate-elliptic tapering into an attenuate-subulate apex, or 7.5–9.5 × 4–4.5 and ovate with a tapering-acute apex; upper bracts successively smaller; spike-axes up to 5 cm long, with scattered scars
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx thinly membranous. Calyx thinly membranous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla usually white (in plants of the Flora Zambesiaca area), sometimes mauvish-white, very light pink, rarely pink or purple with yellow throat; tube 5–6(7) mm long; lower-lip 5–5.5 mm broad. Corollas white. Corolla usually white (in plants of the Flora Zambesiaca area), sometimes mauvish-white, very light pink, rarely pink or purple with yellow throat; tube 5–6(7) mm long; lower-lip 5–5.5 mm broad
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers c. 0.5 mm long. Anthers c. 0.5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupes 3–3.5 × 2.5–3 mm, mauve to purple. Drupes 3–3.5 × 2.5–3 mm, mauve to purple.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 20 - 2080 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, subarbusto, arbusto
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 20 - 2080 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb, subshrub or shrub.
Conservation
Least concern.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.

[UNAL]
Vernacular
Cariaquito, Cariaquito morado, Venturosa

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 2000 m.; Andes, Islas Caribeñas.
Morphology General Habit
Subarbusto, arbusto
Conservation
No Evaluada

[UNAL]
Vernacular
Venturosa

[UPB]
Use Materials
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Burundi, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Comoros, Ethiopia, India, Jawa, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Spanish
Venturosa, cariaquito morado, cariaquito.

Lantana trifolia L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Oct 20, 2016 Villalobos, J. et al [226], Bolivia K000373704
Oct 20, 2016 Apaza, O. et al [167], Bolivia K000373706
Oct 20, 2016 Wood, J.R.I. et al [21348], Bolivia K000373707
Oct 20, 2016 Lliully, A. et al [717], Bolivia K000373708
Oct 20, 2016 Wood, J.R.I. et al [21347], Bolivia K000373709
Oct 20, 2016 Flores [6], Bolivia K000373710
Oct 20, 2016 Wood, J.R.I. et al [21803], Bolivia K000373711
Oct 20, 2016 Lliully, A et al [505], Bolivia K000373712
Oct 20, 2016 Wood, J.R.I. et al [21712], Bolivia K000373713
Oct 20, 2016 Lozano, R et al [2012], Bolivia K000373714
Oct 20, 2016 Wood, J.R.I. et al [21158], Bolivia K000373715
Oct 20, 2016 Jimenez, M. et al [680], Bolivia K000373716
Oct 20, 2016 Wood, J.R.I. et al [21740], Bolivia K000373721
Oct 20, 2016 Flores, A. et al [69], Bolivia K000373723
Oct 20, 2016 Villarroel, D. et al [1740], Bolivia K000373724
Oct 20, 2016 Villarroel, D. et al [209], Bolivia K000373725
Oct 20, 2016 Wood, J.R.I. et al [21162], Bolivia K000373726
Oct 20, 2016 Wood, J.R.I. et al [21691], Bolivia K000373727
Oct 20, 2016 Flores [85], Bolivia K000373728
Oct 20, 2016 Jimenez, M. et al [462], Bolivia K000373729
Oct 20, 2016 Villarroel, D. et al [1415], Bolivia K000373730
Oct 20, 2016 Villalobos, J. et al [406], Bolivia K000373731
Sep 29, 2016 Lliully, A. et al [757], Bolivia K000373719
Jan 1, 2011 Santos, J.U. [90], Brazil K000837926
Oct 27, 2009 Vigo [15248], Peru K000248813
Oct 27, 2009 Graham [847], Peru K000248814
Sep 25, 2009 Teran [1927], Bolivia K000248718
Sep 25, 2009 Croat [92481], Ecuador K000248721
Sep 25, 2009 Holm-Nielsen [20163], Ecuador K000248724
Sep 25, 2009 Holm-Nielsen [19620], Ecuador K000248725
Sep 25, 2009 Holm-Nielsen [19683], Ecuador K000248726
Jan 1, 2009 Hatschbach, G.G. [62424], Brazil K000837905
Jan 1, 2008 Bingham [9076], Zambia K000479892
Jan 1, 1999 Knob, A. [1011], Brazil K000837907
Jan 1, 1998 s.coll. [175], Brazil K000837913
Jan 1, 1998 Cid Ferreira, C.A. [4869], Brazil K000837919
Jan 1, 1998 Philcox, D. [3975], Brazil K000837914
Jan 1, 1998 Fonseca, J. [s.n.], Brazil K000837903
Jan 1, 1998 Usteri, A. [244b], Brazil K000837923
Jan 1, 1998 Burchell [6322], Brazil K000837917
Jan 1, 1998 Burchell [6622], Brazil K000837916
Jan 1, 1997 Pott, V.J. [795], Brazil K000837906
Jan 1, 1994 Rosado, O. [11], Brazil K000837908
Jan 1, 1991 de Carvalho, A.M. [2658], Bahia K000014330
Nov 22, 1970 Cavalcante, P. [2542], Brazil K000837912
Jan 1, 1970 Cavalcante, P. [2542], Brazil K000837911
Jan 1, 1969 Prance, G.T. [8304], Brazil K000837918
Dec 1, 1935 Hoehne, F.C. [31424], Brazil K000837921
Inacio, E. [127], Pernambuco K000013540
Dawkins, H.C. [444], Uganda 11717.000
Hoehne, W. [s.n.], Brazil K000837922
Burchell [4359], Brazil K000837915
Asplund, E. [15821], Ecuador K000470832 Unknown type material
Ule, E. [8294], Brazil K000837925
Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil K000837909
Souza, V.C. [5002], Brazil K000837924
Lima, J.M. [283], Brazil K000837904
Spruce, R. [585], Brazil K000837910
Scavone, O. [s.n.], Brazil K000837920
Welwitsch [5742], Angola Lantana trifolia f. congolensis K001009862
de Menezes, A. [523], Angola Lantana trifolia f. congolensis K001009861
Dechamps, R. [1514], Angola Lantana trifolia f. congolensis K001009858
Welwitsch [5743], Angola Lantana trifolia f. congolensis K001009859
Welwitsch [5691], Angola Lantana trifolia f. congolensis K001009860
Royle, J.F. [Cat. no. 1821], India Lantana dubia K001114291
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1821], Bangladesh Lantana dubia K001114292
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1821], India Lantana dubia K001114290
Sep 25, 2009 Villalobos [996], Bolivia Lantana fiebrigii K000248713
Sep 25, 2009 Jimenez [585], Bolivia Lantana fiebrigii K000248714
Bang, M. [219], Bolivia Lantana fiebrigii K000470840
Fiebrig, K. [2038], Bolivia Lantana fiebrigii K000470841

First published in Sp. Pl.: 626 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (2005). Rutaceae-Zygophyllaceae Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 9: 1-608. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Fernandes, R.B. (2006). Contribução para o conhecimento das Avicenniaceae e Verbenaceae da Flora de Angola Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17(2): 5-68.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Gonçales Salimenas, F.R. & al. (2016). Flora dos estados de Goiás e Tocantins 47: 1-157. Universidade Federal de Goiás.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Ramella, L. & Perret, P. (eds.) (2009). Notulae ad Floram Paraquaiensem, 101-104 Candollea 64: 295-308.
  • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • F.T.A. 5: 277.
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 626 (1753)

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

Flora Zambesiaca

  • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 11 : 606 (1847).
  • Adams, Fl. Pl. Jamaica: 628 (1972).
  • Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60 : 48 (1973).
  • Binns, First Check List Herb. Fl. Malawi: 103 (1968).
  • Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 59 : 263 (1986)
  • Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 61 : 180, t. 15 & 16 (1989).
  • Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 61 : 187 (1989) in adnot.
  • Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 61 : 188 (1989).
  • Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 61 : 191 (1989).
  • Bot. Mag. 35 : t. 1449 (1812).
  • Bull. Jard. Bot. État 32 , Suppl.: 789 (1962).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees & Shrubs: 587 (1961), non L. (1753).
  • Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4 , 3a: 151 (1897).
  • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 46 (1992).
  • F.W.T.A., ed. 2, 2 : 435, 1963
  • Fl. Madag., Verbenaceae: 11 (1956).
  • J. Williamson, Useful Pl. Malawi: 147, fig. 146 (1975).
  • Lilloa 4 : 287 (1939).
  • Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 9 : 35 (1954).
  • Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8, 4 : 333 et 336 (1768, trad. fr. 1785).
  • Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4 : 213 (1983).
  • Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4 : 215 (1983).
  • Walpers, Repert. Bot. Syst. 4 : 61 (1845).
  • White, For. Fl. N. Rhod.: 368 (1962).
  • Willdenow., Sp. Pl. 3 : 315 (1800).
  • op. cit. 61 :184 (1989) in adnot.
  • sensu Brenan, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 639 (1949) pro parte, non Jacq. (1798).
  • sensu Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. Welw. 1 , 4: 827 (1900) pro parte quoad specim. Welwitsch 5643, 5691, 5742 et 5743, non Jacq. (1798).
  • sensu Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. Welw. 1 , 4: 827 (1900) quoad specim. Welwitsch 5666.
  • sensu Hutchinson & Dalziel, F.W.T.A. 2 : 269 (1931).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Adams, Fl. Pl. Jamaica: 628 (1972).
  • Backer & van den Brink jr., Fl. Java 2: 597 (1965).
  • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 398, t. 616 (1987).
  • Briq. in A. Engler & K. Prantl, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 4, 3a: 151 (1895).
  • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 789 (1962).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 587 (1961).
  • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 368 (1962).
  • Fernandes in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 61: 180, t. 15, 16 (1989).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 626 (1753).
  • Meikle in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 435 (1963).
  • Meikle in Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 9: 35(1954).
  • Moldenke in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 48 (1973).
  • Moldenke in Fl. Madag., Fam. 174: 11 (1956).
  • Moldenke in Lilloa 4: 287 (1939).
  • Schauer in DC., Prodr. 11: 606 (1847).
  • Sims in Bot. Mag. 35, t. 1449 (1812).
  • Urban in F. Fedde, Repertorium Speciorum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis Beih. 5: 51 (1920)
  • Urban in Symb. Antill. 8: 593 (1921).

Universidad Nacional de Colombia

  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/