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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FTEA]

Urticaceae, I. Friis University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb with somewhat fleshy stems, slightly woody at base, up to ± 1 m. tall or more, little branched, glabrescent to densely covered with stinging hairs up to ± 1 mm. long and soft glandular hairs 1–2 (–3) mm. long.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves restricted to the top of the stem; stipules linear–lanceolate, fused for ± half their length, glabrous except for a few stinging hairs on the midnerve; petioles 5–15 cm. long, usually densely covered with soft glandular hairs, with a few stinging hairs intermixed; lamina ovate to broadly ovate, 7–20 cm. long, 5.5–14 cm. wide, base broadly cuneate to cordate, margin serrate, on each side with 30–40 teeth up to 0.5 mm. long, apex acute or acuminate; lateral nerves 5–9 pairs, basal pair reaching 10th–12th tooth from apex; upper surface with scattered stiff and stinging hairs and punctiform cystoliths, lower surface with stinging hairs on the nerves.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences bisexual, rarely unisexual, profusely branched panicles on peduncles 4–10 cm. long, overall length 15–20 cm., in the axils of upper leaves and reaching above these, axes covered with glandular hairs, flowers in clusters ± 5 mm. in diameter.
sex Male
Male flowers scattered on the inflorescence and mixed with the ♀ ones or mostly at the base, soon falling, on pedicels ± 1 mm. long; perianth ±1.5 mm. in diameter, 4–5-merous usually with glandular hairs.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers densely clustered; pedicels ± 0.5 mm. long, usually slightly winged dorsiventrally; tepals:the two lateral ones ± 0.5 mm. long, the dorsal one half as long, slightly geniculate, usually with glandular hairs, the ventral one shorter; ovary with stigma ± 0.5 mm. long, filiform, ± recurved. Male flowers scattered on the inflorescence and mixed with the ♀ ones or mostly at the base, soon falling, on pedicels ± 1 mm. long; perianth ±1.5 mm. in diameter, 4–5-merous usually with glandular hairs.
sex Female
Female flowers densely clustered; pedicels ± 0.5 mm. long, usually slightly winged dorsiventrally; tepals:the two lateral ones ± 0.5 mm. long, the dorsal one half as long, slightly geniculate, usually with glandular hairs, the ventral one shorter; ovary with stigma ± 0.5 mm. long, filiform, ± recurved.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Achene ovoid, stipitate, 1(–1.5) mm. long, laterally compressed, on each side with a ridge enclosing a warted area, finally reflexed, dispersed with the perianth.
Figures
Fig. 6/F & 7/D.
Habitat
In disturbed places in forest or woodland, always in semi-shade, sometimes in rock-crevices; from near sea-level to 1300 m.
Distribution
widely distributed in tropical Africa, west to Senegal, north to Ethiopia, south to Angola, Zimbabwe and Mozambiquealso on Madagascar, in Yemen, and throughout tropical Asia from India to Indonesiatropical America, West Indies K4 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2 U4 Z

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 1480 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Pacífico, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, subarbusto, arbusto, arbolito
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FZ]

Urticaceae, I. Friis. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991

Morphology General Habit
Erect annual monoecious herbs to c. 1 m. tall.
Morphology Stem
Stems somewhat fleshy above, ± woody below, little branched, leafy in upper part, covered with stinging hairs to c. 1 mm. long and soft glandular hairs 1–2(3) mm. long.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 10–15 x 8–12 cm., ovate to broadly ovate; apex acuminate; base rounded to truncate; margin regularly serrate, with 30–40 teeth per side c. 0.5 mm. long; lamina usually with stinging hairs on both sides but without glandular hairs.
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petiole 5–15 cm. long, usually covered with soft glandular hairs and a few stinging hairs.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules up to 1 cm. long, linear-lanceolate, fused for ± half their length.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences bisexual, mainly in the axils of the uppermost leaves, consisting of profusely branched panicles up to c. 20 cm. long, on peduncles 4–10 cm. long, axes covered with glandular and stinging hairs.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers intermixed with female flowers or mostly at the base of the inflorescences, soon falling, pedicellate, perianth 4–5-merous, 1–2 mm. in diam., usually with glandular hairs on the outside. Female flowers densely clustered, tepals 4 unequal, pedicel unwinged.
sex Male
Male flowers intermixed with female flowers or mostly at the base of the inflorescences, soon falling, pedicellate, perianth 4–5-merous, 1–2 mm. in diam., usually with glandular hairs on the outside.
sex Female
Female flowers densely clustered, tepals 4 unequal, pedicel unwinged.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Achenes 1–2 mm. long, ovoid, laterally compressed, with circular and rugose markings on the sides, shortly stipitate, shed without the perianth.

[FWTA]

Urticaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A herb 1–5 ft. high
Ecology
Mostly in waste places
Note
Apparently not always urticating.

Native to:

Aldabra, Angola, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Réunion, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Extinct in:

Mauritius

Introduced into:

Alabama, Florida, France, Hawaii

Laportea aestuans (L.) Chew appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Aug 1, 2005 Cheek, M. [11096], Cameroon K000338324
Feb 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [10181], Cameroon K000198502
Feb 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [10179], Cameroon K000198503
Jan 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [7854], Cameroon K000381624
Jul 1, 1990 Agra, M.F. [1226], Brazil K000973183
Jan 1, 1986 Balée, W.L. [815], Brazil K000973181
Jan 1, 1984 Plowman, T. [8499], Brazil K000973180
Jan 1, 1981 Mori, S.A. [10979], Brazil K000973179
Jan 1, 1979 Monteiro, O.P. [P22006], Brazil K000973182
Sep 1, 1964 Ridley [114], Brazil K000973164
Sep 1, 1964 Burchell [1467], Brazil K000973162
Ehrenberg [43], Ethiopia K000242848
Schimper [1739], Ethiopia K000242849
Schimper [1726], Ethiopia K000242850
Martius [84], Brazil K000575401 isotype
Falcão, J.I. [834], Brazil K000973171
Spruce [1507], Brazil K000973163
Irwin, H.S. [48485], Brazil K000973166
Burchell [9106], Brazil K000973168
Salzmann [s.n.], Brazil K000973178
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K000973170
Baker, C.F. [31], Brazil K000973167
Gardner [s.n.], Brazil K000973169
Ridley [116], Brazil K000973159
Tweedie [1287], Brazil K000973177
Glaziou [8085], Brazil K000973175
Tweedie [s.n.], Brazil K000973176
Jonsson, G. [80/a], Brazil K000973172
Etuge, M. [266], Cameroon K000181327
Tweedie [1287], Brazil K000973173
Meurillon, A. [935], Cameroon K000181324
Spruce, R. [1507], Brazil K000973160
Martius [84], Brazil K000575402 isotype
Nditapah, J.K. [231], Cameroon K000181325
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K000973174
Preston, T.A. [1872], Brazil K000973165
Appun, C.F. [621] K000973161

First published in Gard. Bull. Singapore 21: 200 (1965)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Cardoso Pedemeiras, L., Ferreira da Costa, A., Dunn de Araujo,D.S. & Pereira Carauta, P.P. (2011). Ulmaceae, Cannabaceae e Urticaceae das restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro Rodriguésia 62: 299-313.
  • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1997). Flora of North America North of Mexico 3: 1-590. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Friis, I. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Urticaceae: 1-64.
  • Frohlich, D. & Lau, A. (2014). New plant records for the Hawaiian islands 2012-2013 Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 115: 7-17.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
  • Launert, E. & Cope, G.V. (eds.) (1991). Flora Zambesiaca 9(6): 1-135. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Miller, A.G. & Cope, T.A. (1996). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 1: 1-586. Edinburgh university press.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Pederneiras, L.C. & al. (2014). Avaliação do risco de extinção das Urticineae das restingas do estado de Rio de Janeiro Rodriguésia 65: 261-273.
  • Porter, D.M., Murrell, G. & Parker, J. (2009). Some new Darwin vascular plant specimens from the Beagle voyage Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 159: 12-18.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2003). Flora of China 5: 1-505. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Guého, J. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1985). Flore des Mascareignes 161-169: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Cardoso Pedemeiras, L., Ferreira da Costa, A., Dunn de Araujo,D.S. & Pereira Carauta, P.P. (2011). Ulmaceae, Cannabaceae e Urticaceae das restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro Rodriguésia 62: 299-313.
  • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Friis, I. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Urticaceae: 1-64.
  • Frohlich, D. & Lau, A. (2014). New plant records for the Hawaiian islands 2012-2013 Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 115: 7-17.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
  • Launert, E. & Cope, G.V. (eds.) (1991). Flora Zambesiaca 9(6): 1-135. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Pederneiras, L.C. & al. (2014). Avaliação do risco de extinção das Urticineae das restingas do estado de Rio de Janeiro Rodriguésia 65: 261-273.
  • Porter, D.M., Murrell, G. & Parker, J. (2009). Some new Darwin vascular plant specimens from the Beagle voyage Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 159: 12-18.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Chew in Gard. Bull., Singapore 21: 200 (1965)
  • Chew in Gard. Bull., Singapore 25: 164 (1969).
  • Letouzey in Fl. Cameroun 8:121 (1968).
  • Marais in Fl. Masc., 161, Urtic: 5 (1985).
  • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 1:157 (1978).

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
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Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
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Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0