Carpha Banks & Sol. ex R.Br.

First published in Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland.: 230 (1810)
This genus is accepted
The native range of this genus is Uganda to S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean, S. Japan, New Guinea to New Zealand, S. South America.

Descriptions

Cyperaceae, K Hoenselaar, B. Verdcourt & H. Beentje. Hypolytrum, D Simpson. Fuirena, M Muasya. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2010

Morphology General Habit
Perennials, robust, rhizomatous, often mat-forming
Morphology Culms
Culms tufted, the base often covered with fibrous remains of old leaf sheaths
Morphology Leaves
Leaves eligulate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle with clusters of spikelets on peduncles emerging from the axils of the leaves up the culm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets solitary or few to many in dense clusters at the end of primary branches, lanceolate to ovoid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes 3–7 per spikelet, 1–2 lowest glumes scale-like, followed by 3 empty, upper 1–2 glumes with bisexual flowers Glumes distichous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth segments 6, bristle-like, upwardly scabrid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens (2–)3, conspicuously greenish yellow
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlet lanceolate to elliptic, trigonous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style base and perianth bristles persistent Style with 3 branches
Note
15 species; Old World and Chile.
[FTEA]

J. Browning, K.D. Gordon-Gray†, M. Lock, H. Beentje, K. Vollesen, K. Bauters, C. Archer, I. Larridon, M. Xanthos, P. Vorster, J. Bruhl, K. Wilson and X. Zhang (2020). Flora Zambesiaca Volume: 14: Cyperaceae. M.Á. García, J.R. Timberlake (Eds). Kew Publish

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs with a short rhizome
Morphology Culms
Culms erect, trigonous to ± circular in cross-section
Morphology Leaves
Leaves basal and cauline
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a narrow panicle with slender branches, sometimes head-like, spikelets loosely arranged to densely clustered
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets compressed, flowers in each spikelet 1–2, bisexual, lower flower male in Carpha schlechteri
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes 4–6(7), distichous, lower ones empty, persistent, ± half length of upper glumes, uppermost glume sometimes linear, empty
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Hypogynous perianth with 6 bristles, upwardly scabrous or plumose in lower half, usually with inner whorl much longer than outer, falling with nut
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 3; anthers mostly greyish rarely yellow, with a pyramidal to conical apical appendage
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style slender, continuous with ovary, persistent; stigmas 3
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlet trigonous, ornamentation reticulate or punctulate.
Distribution
A genus of c. 16 species with 11 species in eastern and southern Africa, Madagascar and the Mascarenes. Most species in Africa are relatively narrow endemics but Carpha capitellata, the only species in the Flora area, is widespread (South Africa, Zimbabwe and Madagascar).
[FZ]

Sources

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0