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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to N. Australia.
Basilicum polystachyon

[FTEA]

Lamiaceae (Labiatae), A.J. Paton, G. Bramley, O. Ryding, R.M. Polhill, Y.B. Harvey, M. Iwarsson, F. Willis, P.B. Phillipson, K. Balkwill, C.W. Lukhoba, D.F. Otieno, & R.M. Harley. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

Type
Lectotype: Linnean Herbarium 749.15, right hand specimen (LINN!, lecto.)
Morphology General Habit
Aromatic annual herb to 1 m tall
Morphology Stem
Stems erect, strongly quadrangular, branching above, ± glabrous or with short patent hairs on the inflorescence axis
Morphology Leaves
Leaves glandular-punctate, ovate, 2–5 × 1–2(–3) cm, serrate, apex acuminate, base attenuate or cuneate, glabrous or rarely with scattered appressed hairs; petiole 10–35 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences mainly axilliary, condensed, with mainly 6-, rarely 3–5-flowered verticils 3–5 mm apart; flowers often concentrated on one side of the inflorescence axis; bracts 1–2 mm long; pedicels 1–3 mm long, terete, spreading
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx horizontal, 1–1.5 mm long at anthesis with scattered sessile glands and short patent hairs; fruiting calyx 2.5–3 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, blue or purple, 2–3 mm long; tube straight, parallel-sided at base, dilating at midpoint; lips with scattered sessile glands
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlets brown, ovoid, slightly dorsoventrally compressed, minutely roughened, producing mucilage when wet
Figures
Fig 30, p 195
Ecology
Waterside, seasonally flooded areas; 150–1100 m
Conservation
Least concern; widely distributed
Distribution
Range: Throughout Old World tropics Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Z P

[KBu]

Suddee, S., A. J. Paton, & Parnell, J. (2005). Taxonomic Revision of Tribe Ocimeae Dumort. (Lamiaceae) in Continental South East Asia III. Ociminae. Kew Bulletin, 60(1), 3-75. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4110885

Distribution
Tropical Africa, India, Himalaya, Burma, China, Thailand, Indochina, Malaysia, Indonesia & Australia.
Ecology
In moist open areas in forest, paddy fields; alt. from sea level to 300 m.
Morphology General Habit
Annual herbs up to 1 m tall, sometimes woody at base
Morphology Leaves
Leaves membranous, ovate, 10 - 70 x 10 - 40 mm, apex acute or acuminate, base rounded, cuneate or attenuate, margin crenate-serrate, glabrous or glabrescent above, glabrous but with short hairs on veins and sessile glands beneath; petioles slender 10-40 mm long, pubescent or glabrescent on upper side
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens slightly exserted from corolla tube, anterior pair longer, inserted at base of anterior corolla lip, posterior pair inserted slightly below throat
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tubular- campanulate, 1.5 mm long at anthesis; 25 - 30 mm in fruit; posterior lip broadest, orbicular, entire, slightly decurrent on tube; anterior lip 4-lobed, median teeth lanceolate-acuminate, ± equal to the posterior, lateral teeth broadly ovate-cuspidate, slightly shorter; tube declinate, 10-nerved, slightly constricted at throat, pubescent outside with yellow or brown sessile glands, glabrous inside
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla pink, purple or lilac, 2 - 3 mm long, back of lobes sparsely pubescent; posterior lip 3-lobed, pubescent at back, median lobe broadest, emarginate; anterior lip 1-lobed, oblong, slightly longer than posterior; tube dilated toward throat, glabrous outside
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disc with anterior side well developed, obtuse at apex, not exceeding ovary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style calvate-capitate, shortly bifid at apex, ± equal to anterior stamens
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlets brown, ovoid or ellipsoid, 0.5 mm long, smooth, producing mucilage when wet.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence terminal or axillary, up to 100 mm long; axis hispidulous with spreading hairs; bracts subtending 3-4 flowers, forming a small apical coma, persistent, broadly ovate, 1.5 mm long, apex aristate, base attenuate, decurrent into a claw, glabrous or glabrescent both sides; pedicels erect, 0.5 - 1 mm long in flower, 1 - 1.5 mm long in fruit, pubescent
Morphology Stem
Stems much branched at base, quadrangular, scabrid at angles, with hairs at nodes, otherwise glabrous
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting May - February.
Type
India, Linnean Herbarium 749.15 right hand specimen [lectotype LINN, (microfiche!)]
Vernacular
Vietnamese: E Sa.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, 0.3–1 m tall, slightly pubescent with glands and short hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves long-petiolate; blade ovate to almost elliptic, up to 10–70 × 6–40 mm, apex acuminate, base cuneate, margin crenate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence lax, with many rather lax floral branches, sometimes arising even from the base of the plant; bracts minute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Fruiting calyx
Fruiting calyx c. 3 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white or pink, 1.5–2.5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlets subspherical, c. 0.55 × 0.5 mm, producing mucilage when wet.
Distribution
C2; S1–3 widespread in tropical Africa, Asia and Australia.
Ecology
Altitude range 40–170 m.

Native to:

Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, New Guinea, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Caroline Is.

Basilicum polystachyon (L.) Moench appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
May 16, 2013 Mwangoka [5710], Tanzania K000735939
Sep 26, 2006 Ezrom [61], Tanzania K000194866
Mar 21, 1996 Darbyshire, P.J. [808], Papua New Guinea K000888356
Mar 1, 1964 Gwynne Vaughan, D.T. [288], Malaysia K000888365
Jun 1, 1936 Swynnerton, C.F.M. [1970], Mozambique K000347239
Mathew, B. [6392], Kenya 6049.216
Kotschy [164], Sudan K000347238
Whitehead, J.C. [180], Indonesia K000888375
Sinclair, J. [39372], Malaysia K000888364
Gjellerup, K. [998], Indonesia K000888353
Reekmans, M. [8417], Burundi K000509482
Ridley, H.N. [14930], Malaysia K000888367
Wallace, A.R. [s.n.], Indonesia K000888369
Welwitsch [5582], Angola K001008838
Koorders, S.H. [21550], Indonesia K000888373
Cuming, H. [478], Philippines K000888360
Blackwood, B. [329], Papua New Guinea K000888351
s.coll. [s.n.], Philippines K000888359
Versteeg, G. [1938], Indonesia K000888354
Edaño, G.E. [17972], Philippines K000888358
Ridley, H.N. [14928], Malaysia K000888366
Royen, P. van [4580], Indonesia K000888355
Gossweiler, J. [237], Angola K001008837
Reinwardt, C.G.C. [s.n.], Indonesia K000888371
s.coll. [31], Philippines K000888357
Gjellerup, K. [356], Papua New Guinea K000888352
Horsfield, T. [s.n.], Indonesia K000888374
Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. [1940], Indonesia K000888370
s.coll. [s.n.], Indonesia K000888372
Welwitsch [5547], Angola K001008839
Merrill, E.D. [423], Philippines K000888363
Teijsmann, J.E. [732], Indonesia K000888368
Loher, A. [4214], Philippines K000888361
Ramos, M. [41645], Philippines K000888362
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 2711], Myanmar Moschosma polystachyon K001116880
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2711], India Moschosma polystachyon K001116885
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2711] Moschosma polystachyon K001116879
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 2711], Myanmar Moschosma polystachyon K001116881
Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 2711], Myanmar Moschosma polystachyon K001116882
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2711], India Moschosma polystachyon K001116883
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2711] Moschosma polystachyon K001116884

First published in Suppl. Meth.: 143 (1802)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Bramley, G.L.C. (2019). Flora Malesiana 23: 1-444. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Khanam, M. & Hassan, M.A. (2008). Lamiaceae Flora of Bangladesh 58: 1-161. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
  • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R., Harvey, Y., Iwarsson, M., Willis, F., Phillipson, P., Balkwill, K., Lukhoba, C., Otiend, D & Harley (2009). Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-430.
  • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R.M., Harvey, Y.B., Iwarsson, M., Otieno, D., Balkwill, K., Phillipson, P.B., Harley, R.M. & Willis, F. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(8): 1-346. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Suddee, S., Paton, A.J. & Parnell, J.A.N. (2005). Taxonomic Revision of the tribe Ocimeae Dumort (Lamiaceae) in continental South East Asia III. Ociminae Kew Bulletin 60: 3-75.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Bramley, G.L.C. (2019). Flora Malesiana 23: 1-444. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Khanam, M. & Hassan, M.A. (2008). Lamiaceae Flora of Bangladesh 58: 1-161. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R., Harvey, Y., Iwarsson, M., Willis, F., Phillipson, P., Balkwill, K., Lukhoba, C., Otiend, D & Harley (2009). Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-430.
  • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R.M., Harvey, Y.B., Iwarsson, M., Otieno, D., Balkwill, K., Phillipson, P.B., Harley, R.M. & Willis, F. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(8): 1-346. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, (2000) Author: by O. Ryding [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • F.P.S. 3: 205 (1956)
  • F.W.T.A., ed. 2: 454 (1962)
  • Fl. Eth. 5: 581 (2006)
  • Fl. Somalia 3: 346 (2006)
  • J.L.S. 58: 238 (1962)
  • Suppl. Meth. Pl.: 143 (1802) as B. polystachion

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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