Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

[FZ]

Celastraceae, N. K. Robson. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree or rarely a shrublet, (0·15)1–9(15) m. high, unarmed or with spines up to 4 cm. long, axillary or terminating short axillary branches, glabrous, without latex; branches unlined, ± flattened, reddish-purple to reddish-brown, often densely glaucous, and sometimes with numerous pale indistinct lenticels at first, becoming terete and eventually grey-brown.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves fasciculate or not, petiolate;lamina pale green, usually glaucous, sometimes with reddish midrib, often mottled (at least when dry), 2–11·6 × 0·4–5·7(6·3) cm., oblong or rarely ovate to obovate or oblanceolate or oblong-elliptic or rarely subcircular, rounded or retuse to obtuse or apiculate at the apex, with margin ± densely regularly obtusely serrulate or serrulate-crenulate to subentire or very rarely entire, cuneate to angustate at the base, coriaceous or subcoriaceous, with lateral nerves and relatively lax reticulate venation slightly prominent or not prominent; petiole 3–13(20) mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes dichasial at first, becoming monochasial, solitary and axillary or 1–6 on short axillary shoots or occasionally in axillary panicles, with peduncle 1–16 mm. long;pedicels 0·7–4(6) mm. long, articulated in the lower 1/3 or rarely 1/2; flowers 3–60 or more in each cyme, 2–6 mm. in diam., dioecious or rarely monoecious, scented.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 5, subequal, 0·3–1·2 mm. long, oblong-lanceolate to ovate-triangular or subcircular, obtuse to rounded with margin ciliolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 5, white or greenish-white to pale yellow, sometimes tinged pink, 1–3·5 mm. long, elliptic to oblong-elliptic or oblanceolate, with margin finely ciliolate.
sex Male
Male flowers with stamens 5, shorter than the petals, with filaments 0·5–1 mm. long, slender, arising below disk;disk relatively broad, flat or slightly concave, shallowly 5–10-lobed; pistillode small, globose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers with staminodes 5, shorter than ovary; disk as in male flowers; ovary 2(3)-locular, globose, scarcely immersed in the disk; style about as long as ovary, 2(3)-fid at the apex, with small stigmas. Male flowers with stamens 5, shorter than the petals, with filaments 0·5–1 mm. long, slender, arising below disk;disk relatively broad, flat or slightly concave, shallowly 5–10-lobed; pistillode small, globose.
sex Female
Female flowers with staminodes 5, shorter than ovary; disk as in male flowers; ovary 2(3)-locular, globose, scarcely immersed in the disk; style about as long as ovary, 2(3)-fid at the apex, with small stigmas.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule pink to deep red, 2–6 mm. long, globose to pyriform, coriaceous, smooth.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1–2, dark reddish-brown, glossy, with a fleshy smooth rose-pink aril obliquely covering the lower1</3–2/3.

[FWTA]

Celastraceae, R. A. Blakelock. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A savannah shrub or small tree, up to 16 ft. high
Morphology General Shoots
Young shoots often red
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers whitish
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit red.

[FTEA]

Celastraceae, N.K.B. Robson, N. Hallé, B. Mathew & R. Blakelock†. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1994

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree or rarely a shrublet (not in Flora area), (0.15–)1–9(–15) m. high, unarmed or with spines up to 4 cm. long, axillary or terminating short axillary branches, glabrous, without latex; branches unlined, ± flattened, reddish purple to reddish brown, often densely glaucous, and sometimes with numerous pale indistinct lenticels at first, becoming terete and eventually grey-brown.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves fasciculate or not, petiolate; lamina pale green, usually glaucous, sometimes with reddish midrib, often mottled (at least when dry), oblong or rarely ovate to obovate or oblanceolate or oblong-elliptic or rarely subcircular, 2–11.6 × 0.4–5.7(–6.3) cm., rounded or retuse to obtuse or apiculate at the apex, with margin ± densely regularly obtusely serrulate or serrulate-crenulate to subentire or very rarely entire, cuneate to attenuate at the base, coriaceous or subcoriaceous, with lateral nerves and relatively lax reticulate venation slightly prominent or not prominent; petiole 3–13(–20) mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes 1–3.5 cm. long, ± slender, dichasial at first, becoming monochasial, solitary and axillary or 1–6 on short axillary shoots, with peduncle 1–16 mm. long; pedicels 0.7–4(–6) mm. long, articulated in the lower 1/3(–1/2); flowers scented, 3–60 or more in each cyme, 2–6 mm. in diameter, unisexual (plants dioecious or rarely monoecious).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 5, subequal, oblong-lanceolate to ovate-triangular or subcircular, 0.3–1.2 mm. long, obtuse to rounded, with margin ciliolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 5, white or greenish white to pale yellow, sometimes tinged pink, elliptic to oblong-elliptic or oblanceolate, 1–3.5 mm. long, with margin finely ciliolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers:stamens 5, shorter than the petals, with filaments 0.5–1 mm. long, slender, arising below disc; disc relatively broad, flat or slightly concave, shallowly 5–10-lobed; pistillode small, globose. Female flowers:staminodes 5, shorter than the ovary; disc as in ♂; ovary 2(–3)-locular, globose, scarcely immersed in the disc; style ± as long as the ovary, shorter than the petals, 2(–3)-fid at the apex, with small stigmas.
sex Male
Male flowers:stamens 5, shorter than the petals, with filaments 0.5–1 mm. long, slender, arising below disc; disc relatively broad, flat or slightly concave, shallowly 5–10-lobed; pistillode small, globose.
sex Female
Female flowers:staminodes 5, shorter than the ovary; disc as in ♂; ovary 2(–3)-locular, globose, scarcely immersed in the disc; style ± as long as the ovary, shorter than the petals, 2(–3)-fid at the apex, with small stigmas.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule pink to deep red, globose to pyriform, 2–6 mm. long, coriaceous, smooth.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1–2, dark reddish brown, glossy, with a fleshy smooth white aril obliquely covering the lower 1/3–2/3.
Figures
Fig. 2/6–10, p. 15.
Habitat
Deciduous woodland, thickets, scrub, wooded grassland, termitaria and river banks; 45–2280 m.
Distribution
K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Africa south of the Sahara from Senegal to Eritrea and southward to northern Namibia, Botswana and South Africa, (Transvaal and Natal)

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrublet to tree, up to 8(–13) m high, unarmed or with spines up to 5 cm long
Morphology Branches
Branches wine-red, glaucous to grey with indistinct whitish lenticels, glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate; petiole 2–17 mm long; blade 3.2–12.5 x 1.2–8 cm, elliptic or oblong to obovate or oblanceolate, ± leathery, glabrous, acute to rounded, retuse or truncate at the apex, cuneate at the base, margin crenulate to crenate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes 7–30(–50) mm long, glabrous; peduncle 2.6–17(–26) mm long; pedicels 0.5–5 mm long; flowers 3–60 or more in each cyme, 1.3–7 mm wide, functionally unisexual
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 5, 0.5–1 x 0.5–1.3 mm, ovate to triangular, with ciliolate margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 5, 1.2–4 x 0.7–2.5 mm, elliptic to oblong or oblanceolate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers with 5 staminodes shorter than the ovary, ovary 2(–3)-celled Male flowers with 5 stamens longer than the pistillode
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk ± concave, 5–10-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule pink to red when mature, green when young, globose, 3–5(–7) mm long, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1–2, dark red to brown, glossy, with a white aril covering 1/3–2/3 of the surface.
Distribution
N1–3; C1, 2; S1–3 in tropical Africa from Eritrea and Ethiopia to Senegal and southwards to South Africa, in North Africa and the Canary Islands; southern Spain; Yemen, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh; Madagascar
Ecology
Altitude range 140–1300 m.
Vernacular
Godxantool (Somali).

Native to:

Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Canary Is., Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Confetti bush, Confetti spikethorn, Confetti tree, Red spike thorn

Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Sep 19, 2008 Crawford, F. [58], Namibia K000450361 No
Jan 1, 1964 Bojer [s.n.], Madagascar Maytenus senegalensis K000035871 Unknown type material Yes
Jan 1, 1964 Davey, J.T. [66], Mali Maytenus senegalensis K000386485 No
Jan 1, 1964 Story, R. [5041], Botswana Maytenus senegalensis K000511098 No
Jan 1, 1964 Drummond, R.B. [5246], Botswana Maytenus senegalensis K000511100 No
Jan 1, 1964 Baum, H. [565], Angola Maytenus senegalensis K000035859 Unknown type material Yes
Jan 1, 1964 Robertson [45], Botswana Maytenus senegalensis K000511099 No
Jan 1, 1956 Volkens, G. [2088], Tanzania Maytenus senegalensis K000035852 Yes
Jan 1, 1955 Olufsen, O. [93], Mali Maytenus senegalensis K000386484 No
Jan 1, 1955 Hagerup, O. [210], Mali Maytenus senegalensis K000386486 No
Faulkner, H. [2061], Tanzania Maytenus senegalensis 16441.000 No
Tweedie, E.M. [1241], Kenya Maytenus senegalensis 9794.000 No
Sihvonen, J. [136], Burkina Faso Maytenus senegalensis K000386483 No
Hoogh, R.J. de [33], Botswana Maytenus senegalensis K000511102 No
Brown, R.C. [6618], Botswana Maytenus senegalensis K000511101 No
Smith, P.A. [2092], Botswana Maytenus senegalensis K000511103 No
Hiemstra, H. [265], Botswana Maytenus senegalensis K000511096 No
Smith, P.A. [1739], Botswana Maytenus senegalensis K000511095 No
Mott, P.J. [266], Botswana Maytenus senegalensis K000511097 No
Smith, P.A. [617], Botswana Maytenus senegalensis K000511094 No

First published in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 17: 541 (1893)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS G: 1-40325.
  • Guinea, E. (1948). Catálogo razonado de las plantas del Sáhara Español Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 8: 357-429.
  • Jordaan, M. (2012). A monograph of Gymnosporia (Celastraceae): 1-759. Thesis, Faculty Nat. Agric. Sci., Univ. of Pretoria.
  • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jordaan, M. (2012). A monograph of Gymnosporia (Celastraceae): 1-759. Thesis, Faculty Nat. Agric. Sci., Univ. of Pretoria.
  • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Plants and People Africa

    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/