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This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe to Central Asia, Tropical Africa to Arabian Peninsula.
Ceratophyllum submersum

[FTEA]

Ceratophyllaceae, C.M. Wilmot-Dear. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

Morphology General Habit
Very similar to C. demersum in form, but usually more delicate and filamentous in appearance, differing as follows.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves usually lighter green, 2–4 cm. long, branched dichotomously 3–4 times, sometimes one part of leaf branched more than another, rarely a few leaves of whorl only twice branched, usually rather fine, 0.1–0.3 mm. in diameter, but lower 1–2 segments sometimes swollen and up to 2.5 mm. across, marginal spiny teeth always minute, less than 0.1 or 0.2 mm., on lower 2 segments few or absent, few or more rarely numerous on final 2 segments.
sex Male
Male flowers up to 2 mm. in diameter; mature anthers 0.6–0.8 mm. long, 0.4–0.7 mm. wide (length 1–1.5 times width).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female perianth-segments usually longer, (1.5–)1.8–2 mm. long, 0.1–0.3 mm. wide, and relatively narrower (length (5–)7–10 times width). Male flowers up to 2 mm. in diameter; mature anthers 0.6–0.8 mm. long, 0.4–0.7 mm. wide (length 1–1.5 times width).
sex Female
Female perianth-segments usually longer, (1.5–)1.8–2 mm. long, 0.1–0.3 mm. wide, and relatively narrower (length (5–)7–10 times width).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Mature fruit with apical spine less than 1 up to 9 mm.; surface sometimes with few large warts or spines.

[FZ]

Ceratophyllaceae, C. M. Wilmot-Dear. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991

Morphology General Habit
Aquatic herb similar to Ceratophyllum demersum, but usually more delicate, differing as follows: Leaves usually lighter green, 2–4 cm. long, branching dichotomously 3–4 times (rarely twice in some whorls), usually rather fine, 0.1–0.3 mm. thick, to 2.5 mm. thick in lower segments, marginal teeth few, inconspicuous, often absent from lower segments, up to 0.1–0.2 mm. long.
sex Male
Male flowers to 2 mm. in diam.; anthers 0.6–0.8 x 0.4–0.7 mm., often smaller and relatively broader than in C. demersum.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female perianth lobes (1.5) 1.8–2 x 0.1–0.3 mm., relatively narrower and usually longer than in C. demersum. Male flowers to 2 mm. in diam.; anthers 0.6–0.8 x 0.4–0.7 mm., often smaller and relatively broader than in C. demersum.
sex Female
Female perianth lobes (1.5) 1.8–2 x 0.1–0.3 mm., relatively narrower and usually longer than in C. demersum.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit usually markedly laterally flattened with a marginal rim or wing.

Native to:

Albania, Algeria, Altay, Austria, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Central European Rus, Chad, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East European Russia, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Krym, Libya, Morocco, Netherlands, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northwest European R, Oman, Palestine, Poland, Romania, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Siberia, Yugoslavia, Zaïre

Introduced into:

Finland

Ceratophyllum submersum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Hall, J.B. [GC581], Ghana 28360.000
Hall, J.B. [3220], Ghana 28366.000
Hall, J.B. [3410], Ghana 28367.000

First published in Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 1409 (1763)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Sheremetova, S.A., Ebel, A.L. & Buko, T.E. (2011). Supplement to the flora of Kemerovo region since 2001 till 2010 Turczaninowia 14(1): 65-74.
  • Szalontai, B. & al. (2018). Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Ceratophyllum L. taxa: a new perspective Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 188: 161-172.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Jonsell, B. (ed.) (2001). Flora Nordica 2: 1-430. The Bergius Foundaton.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Sheremetova, S.A., Ebel, A.L. & Buko, T.E. (2011). Supplement to the flora of Kemerovo region since 2001 till 2010 Turczaninowia 14(1): 65-74.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 81 (1974).
  • Hauman in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 2: 165 (1951).
  • L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2: 1409 (1763).

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/