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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa to Limpopo.
Combretum paniculatum

[FZ]

Combretaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology General Habit
Usually a vigorous evergreen climber or a scrambling shrub in absence of support (occasionally a bush—perhaps intermediates or hybrids with C. platypetalum); bark grey to grey-black; branchlets usually rufous-tomentose at first but soon glabrescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite; lamina up to 12(18) x 8(9·5) cm., usually c. 1 1/2 times as long as broad, chartaceous, oblong-elliptic, usually glabrous or nearly so, apex rounded or acuminate, base obtuse to subcordate; lateral nerves 4–6(8) pairs; petiole up to 3 cm. long, the base often persistent and becoming spiny.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal or axillary panicles; rhachis usually fuscous- or fulvous-tomentose; bracts c. 4 mm. long, very narrowly ovate-elliptic.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers red, 4(5)-merous, sessile or very shortly pedicellate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Receptacle
Lower receptacle up to 4(5) mm. long, usually somewhat constricted above and below the ovary, densely fulvous- or rufous-(more rarely silvery-)pubescent; upper receptacle 4–5 x 2–3 mm. (in our area), campanulate, densely fulvous- or rufous- (or more rarely silvery-) pubescent, sometimes nearly glabrous towards the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals usually reduced to short teeth, sometimes triangular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals red, c. 2·5 x 2·5 mm., subcircular to ovate, usually somewhat overlapping at first and ± connivent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamen-filaments 7–8 mm. long, usually red; anthers 0·9 mm. long, red or purplish.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk rather inconspicuous, without a free margin.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 6–8 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 4(5)-winged, 2–2·5 x 1·5–2 cm. (in our area, sometimes larger elsewhere), subcircular to oblong-elliptic in outline, sparsely pubescent on the body, apical peg usually absent, wings up to 9 mm. broad, thin, stipe 5–10 mm. long.

[FWTA]

Combretaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology General Habit
Scandent shrub, becoming lofty liane in forest
Ecology
Extending into the savannah regions in fringing forest and thickets
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petioles becoming spines
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Petals and stamens bright red; flowers often produced when plant is leafless.

[FTEA]

Combretaceae, G. E. Wickens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1973

Morphology General Habit
A vigorous climber or scrambling or ± prostrate shrub; branchlets usually rufous tomentose at first, becoming glabrescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite; lamina chartaceous, subcircular, oblong-elliptic, ovate-oblong or obovate-oblong, up to 18 cm. long and 9.5 cm. wide, apex rounded or acuminate, base obtuse to subcordate, either glabrous or nearly so (in East Africa) or greyish (drying silvery) or fulvous tomentose when young and becoming glabrescent; lateral nerves 4–8 pairs; petiole up to 3 cm. long, base often persistent and becoming spiny.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence of terminal or axillary panicles usually appearing before the leaves; rhachis usually fuscous or fulvous tomentose; bracts ± 2 mm. long, often transitional to foliage leaves.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers (fig. 6/29, p. 50)red, 4- or 5-merous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Receptacle
Lower receptacle up to 4(–5) mm. long, usually somewhat constricted above and below the ovary, densely fulvous or rufous pubescent (more rarely silvery sericeous tomentose); upper receptacle campanulate (sometimes almost cup-shaped in W. Africa), 2.5–6.5(–8) mm. long, 2–4 mm. wide, (in E. Africa the 4-merous forms range from 3–6 mm. long, the 5-merous from (4.5–)5–6(–8) mm. long), densely to lightly fulvous or rufous or greyish or silvery pubescent, often becoming glabrescent (the 5-merous forms are invariably glabrescent).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals variable, from almost inconspicuous to triangular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals red, subcircular to ovate, usually somewhat overlapping at first and ± connivent, ± 2.5 mm. long and wide, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamen-filaments 7–18 mm. long, usually red; anthers 0.9 mm. long, red or purplish.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk inconspicuous, without a free margin.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit (fig. 7/29, p. 51) 4- or 5-winged, subcircular to oblong-elliptic or broadly elliptic in outline, 2–4(–5) cm. long, 1.5–4 cm. wide, body sparsely pubescent to glabrous; wings thin; stipe 5–10 mm. long.

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Bangladesh

Combretum paniculatum Vent. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Mar 1, 2014 Luke, W.R.Q. [9906], Mozambique K000812463
May 1, 2009 Sebsebe [2228], Ethiopia K000565472
May 1, 2008 Hepper [7977], Ivory Coast K000566947
Jan 1, 1993 Thomas, D.W. [3053], Cameroon K000050784
Jun 1, 1990 Meurillon, A. [CNAD 568], Cameroon K000050789
Apr 1, 1970 Whitfield [s.n.], Sierra Leone K000232608 holotype
Troupin, G. [4771], Congo 24465.000
Zambia 3238.000
Mann [203], Bioko K000232580
Don, Sierra Leone K000232583
Whitfield [s.n.], Sierra Leone K000232609
Thonner, Fr. [245], Congo K000226389
Soyaux, H. [86], Angola K000226390
Zenker [177], Cameroon K000226391 lectotype
Carvalho [s.n.], Mozambique K000226605 Unknown type material
Dundas, J. [FHI 13990], Cameroon K000050788
Maitland, T.D. [887], Cameroon K000050785
Maitland, T.D. [887], Cameroon K000050786
Dundas, J. [FHI 13990], Cameroon K000050787
Goetze, W. [23], Tanzania Combretum abbreviatum K000226476
Goetze, W. [23], Tanzania Combretum abbreviatum K000226477

First published in Choix Pl.: t. 58 (1808)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Liben, L. (1968). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Combretaceae: 1-105. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 2: 1-1060. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Wickens, G.E. (1973). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Combretaceae: 1-99.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Chev. Bot. 263.
  • Engl. & Diels Monogr. Afr. Combretac. 70
  • —F.T.A. 2: 425

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 2: 1-1060. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Battiscombe & Dale, Trees and Shrubs of Kenya Colony ed. 2: 32 (1936).
  • Burtt Davy, Check-lists Brit. Emp. 1, Uganda: 36 (1935).
  • Engl. & Diels in Monographieen Afrikanischer Pflanzen-Familien und Gattungen 3: 70, t. 21/C (1899), excl. var. virgatum.
  • Exell in Kirkia 7: 212 (1970).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 134 (1949).
  • Laws, in Flora of Tropical Africa 2: 425 (1871).
  • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 207 (1949).
  • Vent., Choix Pl., sub. t. 58 (1808).

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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