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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical to Tropical Mountains.
Hierochloe odorata (sweet grass)

[KBu]

Mashau A. C. 2016. A synopsis of Anthoxanthum (Poaceae: Pooideae: Poeae) in southern Africa and description of a new subspecies. Kew Bulletin 71:18. DOI 10.1007/S12225-016-9629-6

Distribution
species. ± 20. north temperate regions of the world and the mountains of tropical africa. apart from the african species, the genus is found in europe, asia and north america; ± 4 in southern africa (1 naturalised), lesotho, south africa: mpumalanga, free state, kwazulu-natal, eastern and western cape.
Morphology General Habit
An annual or perennial, tufted to decumbent; stoloniferous or rhizomatous; sometimes aromatic.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf blade linear, expanded and often folded; ligule an unfringed membrane
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 2 or 3 (rarely)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Florets 3, lower 2 florets male or sterile with lower lemma(s) longer than the uppermost lemma, membranous, hairy, 5 – 7-nerved, apex 2-lobed, lowest lemma with a short straight awn from above middle of the back, second lemma awned from near the base, awn geniculate; uppermost floret bisexual, lemma glabrous, awnless; palea without keels, usually 1-nerved
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary glabrous; styles long, plumose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Lodicules
Lodicules 0
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis hilum short; embryo small.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a narrow, spike-like panicle; spikelets solitary, sessile or pedicelled
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelet moderately laterally compressed, disarticulating above the glumes; glumes unequal, similar, membranous with hyaline margins, glabrous to hairy, awnless; lower glume 1 – 5-nerved; upper glume 3-nerved
Note
x = 5 (polyploidy). C3; XyMS+.
Type
Type species: Anthoxanthum odoratum L.

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Annuals or perennials
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicles contracted, spike-like
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 3-flowered, the 2 lowest florets reduced to sterile (rarely ♂) lemmas, the uppermost hermaphrodite; rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes, not, or scarcely, produced; glumes membranous with hyaline margins, the upper as long as the spikelet, the lower about half as long; sterile lemmas narrowly oblong, brown, hairy, bilobed, the lower with a short straight awn from above the middle of the back, the upper with a geniculate awn from below the middle; fertile lemma rotund, shorter than the sterile lemmas, cartilaginous; palea as long as the lemma, 1-nerved; stamens 2; stigmas 2, pubescent.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual (4), or perennial (13). Rhizomes absent (10), or short (1), or elongated (6). Culms erect (7/10), or geniculately ascending (5/10), or decumbent (2/10), or rambling (2/10); slender (2/5), or weak (3/5); 7-43.41-120 cm long. Lateral branches lacking (12/13), or sparse (3/13). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (15), or lanceolate (2); stiff (2), or firm (12), or flaccid (3); without scent (4), or aromatic (13). Leaf-blade apex muticous (16), or pungent (1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle, or composed of racemes (1). Panicle open (3), or contracted (7), or spiciform (9). Racemes single (1/1); lanceolate (1/1); paucilateral (1/1). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong (9/9).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (7), or elliptic (2), or oblong (9), or obovate (1); laterally compressed; 2.49-6.801-13 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (15), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (2).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (7), or elliptic (2), or oblong (9), or obovate (1); laterally compressed; 2.49-6.801-13 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (15), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (2).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; reaching apex of florets (1), or exceeding apex of florets (16); thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (3), or elliptic (1), or ovate (14); 0.5-0.6418-0.9 length of upper glume; hyaline (1), or membranous (15), or chartaceous (1); 1-keeled; 1 -veined (14), or 3 -veined (3), or 4-5 -veined (1). Lower glume lateral veins absent (14), or distinct (3). Lower glume surface glabrous (15), or pubescent (2). Lower glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (7), or acuminate (10); muticous (16), or mucronate (2). Upper glume lanceolate (7), or elliptic (5), or oblong (2), or ovate (4), or obovate (1); 1.5-2.626-5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (16), or chartaceous (1); with undifferentiated margins (13), or hyaline margins (3), or scarious margins (1); 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein eciliate, or ciliolate (1). Upper glume surface glabrous (15), or pubescent (2). Upper glume apex acute (10), or acuminate (8); muticous (15), or mucronate (3).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets male (5), or barren (15); with palea (5), or without significant palea (15). Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (1), or oblong (16); 1.3-1.85-2.8 length of fertile lemma; membranous (5), or chartaceous (10), or scarious (2); 3 -veined (1/14), or 4 -veined (2/14), or 5 -veined (13/14); emarginate (3/15), or truncate (1/15), or obtuse (11/15); muticous (1), or awned (16). Fertile lemma elliptic (1), or oblong (6), or ovate (3), or orbicular (10); cartilaginous; without keel; 3-4 -veined (1), or 5 -veined, or 6-7 -veined (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex emarginate (4), or obtuse (13); muticous, or mucronate (1), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1). Palea 1 length of lemma; 1 -veined (16), or 2 -veined (1); without keels (16), or 2-keeled (1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules absent. Anthers 2 (16), or 3 (2). Stigmas 2; pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; lanceolate (1/7), or ellipsoid (6/7), or oblong (1/7). Embryo 0.25-0.31-0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform.
Distribution
Europe (5), or Africa (9), or Temperate Asia (9), or Tropical Asia (5), or Australasia (2), or Pacific (1), or North America (2), or South America (1), or Antarctica (1).

[FZ]

Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets solitary, pedicelled, moderately laterally compressed, usually 3-flowered (rarely less), awned; rhachilla disarticulating above the superior glume, not produced beyond the uppermost floret.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Florets heteromorphous, the first and second sterile or male (sometimes the first male and the second sterile), the terminal one always bisexual.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes 2, unequal, persistent, keeled, membranous, 1-3-nerved with the nerves usually prominent, apex acute to acuminate; the inferior about 3/5-3/4 the length of the superior; the superior as long as or longer than the body of the lemmas.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
The first and second lemmas similar and almost equal, membranous, narrowly oblong in profile, 5-7-nerved, strongly laterally compressed, keeled, densely pilose, 2-fid to deeply 2-lobed, awned from the base or from the back or from the sinus; the awns usually unequal, that of the first lemma usually short and inserted 1/3-1/2-way below the apex, usually straight; that of the second lemma as long as or longer than its body, inserted near the base or sometimes around the middle, geniculate. Terminal lemma muticous, much shorter than (1/3-1/2) the preceding ones, expanded broadly elliptic or ovate-elliptic, faintly 7-1-nerved, obtusely 2-keeled, thinly membranous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Palea
Paleas of the first and second floret, when present, slightly shorter than the lemmas, linear, hyaline, 2-keeled; the one of the terminal floret narrowly oblong, 2-keeled, usually 1-nerved.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Lodicules
Lodicules absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 3 in the male, 2 in the bisexual florets.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary glabrous; styles distinct, long; stigmas long, rather slender, plumose, exserted from the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis oblong-elliptic in outline, slightly laterally compressed; embryo c. 1/4 the length of the caryopsis; hilum small, punctiform, basal.
Morphology General Habit
Sweet-scented annuals or perennials, often stoloniferous.
Morphology Leaves Ligules
Ligules membranous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a dense spike-like panicle.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Rhizomes absent (12), or short (7), or elongated (14). Culms erect (12/15), or geniculately ascending (3/15), or decumbent (1/15); robust (1/1); 5-51.96-130 cm long; firm (32), or wiry (1). Lateral branches lacking (4/5), or ample (1/5). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (32), or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (30), or a ciliolate membrane (2), or a ciliate membrane (1). Leaf-blades persistent (32), or deciduous at the ligule (1); filiform (1), or linear (32); herbaceous (32), or coriaceous (1); stiff (4), or firm (29); without exudate (32), or pruinose (1); without scent (15), or aromatic (18). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (32), or with distinct cross veins (1). Leaf-blade surface with rounded ribs (1/4), or rectangular ribs (3/4). Leaf-blade apex muticous (32), or pungent (1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open (21), or contracted (5), or spiciform (7). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (16), or oblong (7), or ovate (7), or cuneate (5); laterally compressed; 2.5-5.753-14 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (30), or elongated between basal sterile florets (1), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (3). Floret callus glabrous (1/5), or pubescent (2/5), or pilose (2/5).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (16), or oblong (7), or ovate (7), or cuneate (5); laterally compressed; 2.5-5.753-14 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (30), or elongated between basal sterile florets (1), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (3). Floret callus glabrous (1/5), or pubescent (2/5), or pilose (2/5).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (14), or reaching apex of florets (17), or exceeding apex of florets (14); thinner than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas (27), or gaping (6). Lower glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (3), or ovate (27), or obovate (2); 0.5-0.9355-1 length of upper glume; hyaline (6), or membranous (25), or herbaceous (1), or scarious (1); without keels (1), or 1-keeled (32); 1 -veined (11/30), or 2 -veined (2/30), or 3 -veined (21/30). Lower glume lateral veins absent (10), or distinct (24). Lower glume apex obtuse (11/31), or acute (25/31); muticous (31), or mucronate (2). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (2), or oblong (1), or ovate (26), or oblate (1), or obovate (2); 0.5-1.336-2.2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (6), or membranous (25), or herbaceous (1), or scarious (1); with undifferentiated margins (29), or scarious margins (4); without keels (1), or 1-keeled (32); 1 -veined (4/30), or 2 -veined (2/30), or 3 -veined (28/30). Upper glume surface smooth (32), or asperulous (1). Upper glume apex obtuse (12/31), or acute (24/31); muticous (31), or mucronate (2).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets male (30), or barren (3); with palea (30), or without significant palea (3). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (2), or elliptic (21), or oblong (11); 0.9-1.183-1.5 length of fertile lemma; membranous (9), or chartaceous (23), or coriaceous (1); 3-4 -veined (1/25), or 5 -veined (25/25); emarginate (3/30), or truncate (3/30), or obtuse (24/30), or acute (3/30); muticous (10), or mucronate (8), or awned (23). Fertile florets bisexual (28), or female (5). Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or elliptic (2), or oblong (5), or ovate (27); membranous (2), or chartaceous (1), or cartilaginous (30); without keel (32), or keeled (1); 3 -veined (3/16), or 4 -veined (2/16), or 5 -veined (15/16). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (32), or scaberulous (1); eciliate, or ciliolate (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (2/2). Lemma surface smooth (27), or scaberulous (3), or scabrous (3); glabrous (12), or puberulous (4), or pubescent (16), or pilose (2); without hair tufts (32), or with conspicuous apical hairs (1). Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea; eciliate (29), or ciliolate (2), or ciliate (2). Lemma apex emarginate (1/27), or truncate (1/27), or obtuse (4/27), or acute (23/27); without ornament (31), or pubescent (2); muticous (29), or mucronate (11), or awned (2); 1 -awned (1/1). Principal lemma awn apical (6/12), or subapical (6/12). Palea 0.8-0.92-1 length of lemma; 1 -veined (26/27), or 3 -veined (1/27); without keels (26), or 1-keeled (7). Palea apex dentate (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules absent (2/14), or 2 (12/14). Anthers 2 (27/32), or 3 (30/32). Stigmas 2 (3/3); plumose (31), or pubescent (2). Ovary unappendaged (32), or beaked (1); glabrous (28/28).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (32/32); fusiform (1/3), or ellipsoid (1/3), or obovoid (1/3). Embryo 0.3-0.45-0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (2/4), or linear (2/4).
Distribution
Europe (6), or Temperate Asia (9), or Tropical Asia (5), or Australasia (10), or North America (6), or South America (9), or Antarctica (1).

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Antipodean Is., Argentina South, Arizona, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Finland, France, Free State, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Madagascar, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Malawi, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Central, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Myanmar, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Sicilia, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Svalbard, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zaïre

Introduced into:

Alabama, Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Argentina Northeast, Arkansas, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Florida, Georgia, Haiti, Hawaii, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Kentucky, Kerguelen, Kermadec Is., Louisiana, Macquarie Is., Marquesas, Mexico Northeast, Mississippi, Missouri, Norfolk Is., Oklahoma, Réunion, South Australia, South Carolina, South Georgia, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Tennessee, Texas, Tristan da Cunha, Uruguay, Virginia, Western Australia

Anthoxanthum L. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Sp. Pl.: 28 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Kew Bulletin

  • Fish, L. & Victor, J. E. (2005). Anthoxanthum dregeanum (Nees) Stapf. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2014.1. Accessed on 17 March 2015.
  • Fish, L. (2000). Poaceae (Gramineae). In: O. A. Leistner, Seeds plants of southern Africa: families and genera, Strelitzia 10: 659 – 726.
  • Gibbs Russell, G. E., Watson, L., Koekemoer, M., Smook, L., Barker, N. P., Anderson, H. M. & Dallwitz, M. J. (1990). Grasses of southern Africa, Mem. Bot. Surv. South Africa 58.
  • Linnaeus 1753
  • Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species plantarum. Laurentius Salvius, Stockholm.
  • Mucina, L. & Rutherford, M. C. (2006). The vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Strelitzia 19.
  • Nees ab Esenbeck, C. G. D. (1841). Florae Africanae australioris illustrationes monographicae. Prausnitz, Glogau.
  • Species Plantarum: 28
  • Stapf, O. (1899). Gramineae. Flora capensis 7: 465 – 468. Lovell Reeve, London.
  • Stapf, O. (1910). Diagnoses africanae: XXXIV. Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1910(2): 59.
  • Trinius, C. B. (1839). Phalaridea. Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 5, 3 (3): 78 – 84.
  • Victor, J. E., Fish, L. & Ellis, R. P. (2007). Anthoxanthum brevifolium Stapf. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2014.1. Accessed on 17 March 2015.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 17 (1754).
  • Sp.Pl. 1: 28 (1753)

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 17 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 28 (1753)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0