Chusquea Kunth

First published in Syn. Pl. Aequin. 1: 254 (1822)
This genus is accepted
The native range of this genus is Mexico to Tropical America.

Descriptions

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Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Rhizomes absent (100), or short (43), or elongated (15); leptomorph (12/57), or pachymorph (45/57). Culms erect (57/137), or geniculately ascending (2/137), or decumbent (2/137), or rambling (1/137), or arching (27/137), or leaning (9/137), or scandent (59/137); reed-like (14/17), or robust (2/17), or slender (1/17); 15-524.8-4000 cm long; firm (5), or wiry (1), or woody (152); without nodal roots (103/109), or with prop roots (2/109), or with root dots on the nodes (1/109), or with aerial roots from the nodes (3/109), or with root thorns from the nodes (4/109). Culm-internodes abbreviated and closely packed at the base (1/1); terete (146/153), or semiterete (1/153), or channelled (4/153), or elliptical in section (2/153). Culm-nodes flush with internodes (7/19), or swollen (12/19); without obvious supra-nodal ridge (12/32), or with distinct supra-nodal ridge (20/32). Lateral branches lacking (22), or sparse (2), or suffrutescent (1), or dendroid (134). Branch complement one (4/132), or two (3/132), or three (7/132), or several (43/132), or many (93/132); solitary (2/116), or in a horizontal line (24/116), or in an irregular line (2/116), or in a clump (83/116), or girdling the culm (7/116); with subequal branches (28/59), or 1 branch dominant (33/59), or 2 branches dominant (2/59), or 3 branches dominant (1/59), or interspersed leafless fibrillar branches (4/59); as thick as stem (2/87), or thinner than stem (86/87). Culm-sheaths persistent (49/70), or tardily deciduous (2/70), or deciduous but leaving a persistent girdle (9/70), or deciduous (10/70); without auricles (25/25). Culm-sheath blade inconspicuous (2/77), or linear (7/77), or lanceolate (20/77), or triangular (49/77); narrower than sheath (5/12), or as wide as sheath at base (1/12), or cordate (6/12). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (136), or erect (20), or falcate (2). Ligule an eciliate membrane (131), or a ciliolate membrane (16), or a ciliate membrane (11), or absent (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (10), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (138), or with a false petiole (10). Leaf-blades persistent (114), or deciduous at the ligule (43); aciculate (3), or linear (40), or lanceolate (125), or oblong (4), or ovate (8); herbaceous (125), or chartaceous (2), or coriaceous (30); stiff (30), or firm (128). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (3/13), or evident (3/13), or conspicuous (7/13). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (117), or with obscure cross veins (30), or with distinct cross veins (20). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (30/30). Leaf-blade apex muticous (156), or pungent (1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Synflorescence simple (148/149), or bractiferous (1/149); clustered at the nodes (1/1); in untidy tufts (1/1); with glumaceous subtending bracts (1/1); without axillary buds at base of spikelet (1/1); leafless between clusters (1/1). Inflorescence a panicle (146/148), or composed of racemes (2/148); terminal (146/148), or terminal and axillary (1/148), or axillary (1/148); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (139/148), or an inflated leaf-sheath (4/148), or a spatheole (3/148), or bracts (7/148); exserted (112/148), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (41/148), or enclosed (1/148). Spatheole lanceolate (1/1). Peduncle tipped by a glumaceous appendage (1/1). Panicle open (88/146), or contracted (45/146), or spiciform (12/146), or capitate (6/146). Racemes single (1/1); bearing few fertile spikelets (1/2), or many spikelets (1/2); bearing 2 fertile spikelets on each (1/2), or 3-4 fertile spikelets on each (2/2), or 5-6 fertile spikelets on each (1/2). Spikelet packing contiguous (1/2), or lax (1/2). Spikelets appressed (10/13), or spreading (3/13), or deflexed (1/13); solitary (148/148). Fertile spikelets sessile (4/149), or pedicelled (149/149). Pedicels filiform (2/2).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets (149/149); 1 fertile florets (149/149); without rhachilla extension (149/149). Spikelets linear (3/149), or lanceolate (46/149), or elliptic (38/149), or oblong (42/149), or ovate (21/149), or cuneate (2/149); laterally compressed (130/149), or subterete (13/149), or dorsally compressed (10/149); 1.66-7.561-15.7 mm long; breaking up at maturity (149/149); disarticulating below each fertile floret (149/149). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (149/149), or elongated between glumes (1/149).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets (149/149); 1 fertile florets (149/149); without rhachilla extension (149/149). Spikelets linear (3/149), or lanceolate (46/149), or elliptic (38/149), or oblong (42/149), or ovate (21/149), or cuneate (2/149); laterally compressed (130/149), or subterete (13/149), or dorsally compressed (10/149); 1.66-7.561-15.7 mm long; breaking up at maturity (149/149); disarticulating below each fertile floret (149/149). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (149/149), or elongated between glumes (1/149).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes both absent or obscure (15/149), or two (136/149); persistent (136/136); shorter than spikelet (136/136), or reaching apex of florets (2/136); thinner than fertile lemma (115/136), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (21/136). Lower glume linear (1/136), or lanceolate (12/136), or oblong (6/136), or ovate (101/136), or orbicular (10/136), or oblate (7/136); 0.1-0.7482-1 length of upper glume; hyaline (1/136), or membranous (115/136), or coriaceous (20/136); without keels (124/135), or 1-keeled (11/135); 0 -veined (60/97), or 1 -veined (43/97), or 2 -veined (6/97), or 3 -veined (9/97), or 4-5 -veined (2/97). Lower glume lateral veins absent (92/136), or obscure (9/136), or distinct (44/136). Lower glume surface smooth (123/136), or asperulous (4/136), or scabrous (10/136); glabrous (115/136), or puberulous (6/136), or pubescent (14/136), or pilose (2/136). Lower glume apex obtuse (55/129), or acute (57/129), or acuminate (17/129), or attenuate (5/129), or setaceously attenuate (1/129), or cuspidate (2/129); muticous (119/136), or mucronate (3/136), or awned (17/136). Upper glume linear (1/136), or lanceolate (13/136), or oblong (7/136), or ovate (103/136), or orbicular (7/136), or oblate (6/136); 0.02-0.2475-1.1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (47/67), or coriaceous (20/67); with undifferentiated margins (135/136), or scarious margins (1/136); without keels (125/135), or 1-keeled (10/135); 0 -veined (53/96), or 1 -veined (38/96), or 2 -veined (15/96), or 3 -veined (27/96), or 4 -veined (7/96), or 5 -veined (8/96), or 6 -veined (1/96), or 7 -veined (2/96). Upper glume surface smooth (124/136), or asperulous (4/136), or scabrous (9/136); glabrous (111/136), or puberulous (5/136), or pubescent (18/136), or pilose (2/136), or villous (1/136), or hispidulous (1/136), or hispid (1/136). Upper glume apex emarginate (1/130), or truncate (2/130), or obtuse (59/130), or acute (58/130), or acuminate (16/130), or attenuate (5/130), or setaceously attenuate (1/130), or cuspidate (2/130); muticous (114/136), or mucronate (7/136), or awned (19/136); 1 -awned (19/19).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren (149/149); with palea (1/149), or without significant palea (149/149). Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (1/149), or lanceolate (20/149), or elliptic (7/149), or oblong (5/149), or ovate (116/149), or obovate (1/149); 0.25-0.5534-1.1 length of fertile lemma; membranous (3/149), or chartaceous (127/149), or coriaceous (19/149); 0-4-11 -veined; truncate (2/138), or obtuse (6/138), or acute (93/138), or acuminate (23/138), or attenuate (4/138), or setaceously attenuate (8/138), or cuspidate (1/138), or rostrate (1/138); muticous (111/149), or mucronate (29/149), or awned (17/149). Fertile lemma lanceolate (28/149), or elliptic (13/149), or oblong (5/149), or ovate (105/149); coriaceous (149/149); without keel (147/149), or keeled (2/149); 3-7-18 -veined. Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (147/149), or scabrous (2/149). Lemma lateral veins obscure (3/10), or prominent (7/10); without ribs (148/149), or ribbed (1/149). Lemma surface smooth (130/149), or scaberulous (9/149), or scabrous (13/149); without grooves (148/149), or with longitudinal folds (1/149); glabrous (116/149), or puberulous (9/149), or pubescent (22/149), or pilose (4/149), or setose (1/149); hairy on back (33/36), or between veins (3/36). Lemma margins flat (144/149), or involute (5/149); exposing palea (144/149), or covering most of palea (5/149); eciliate (131/149), or ciliolate (5/149), or ciliate (11/149), or pubescent (2/149). Lemma apex truncate (1/143), or obtuse (6/143), or acute (91/143), or acuminate (24/143), or attenuate (3/143), or setaceously attenuate (4/143), or apiculate (19/143); without ornament (147/149), or pubescent (2/149); muticous (114/149), or mucronate (35/149), or awned (11/149); 1 -awned (11/11). Palea not rolled (143/149), or tightly convolute around flower (6/149); 1-1.005-1.1 length of lemma; membranous (131/149), or coriaceous (18/149); 2 -veined (20/85), or 3 -veined (11/85), or 4 -veined (59/85), or 5 -veined (17/85), or 6 -veined (28/85), or 7-8 -veined (8/85), or 9 -veined (1/85); without keels (17/149), or 1-keeled (1/149), or 2-keeled (131/149). Palea keels separated (101/131), or approximate (8/131), or contiguous above a sulcus (22/131); smooth (130/132), or scaberulous (1/132), or scabrous (1/132); eciliate (131/132), or ciliolate (1/132). Palea surface glabrous (127/149), or puberulous (3/149), or pubescent (16/149), or pilose (3/149). Palea apex dentate (6/6); muticous (134/149), or with excurrent keel veins (13/149), or awned (2/149).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 3 (145/145); membranous (102/102); glabrous (66/145), or ciliate (79/145); obtuse (1/1). Anthers 2 (1/142), or 3 (141/142). Stigmas 2 (138/138). Ovary glabrous (14/14).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (137/137); ellipsoid (1/3), or oblong (2/3); apex unappendaged (117/117). Embryo 0.12-0.2-0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (8/8); 0.75-0.9167-1 length of caryopsis.
Distribution
North America (18), or South America (149).
[GB]

Sources

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    • ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images