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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Annuals or perennials
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades linear, flat; ligule absent or represented by a line of hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes arranged on a central axis; rhachis triquetrous, scabrid, often setose, the spikelets paired (very rarely single) or on short side branchlets and forming (2–)4 or more rows
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets narrowly elliptic to subrotund, convex on the back, flat on the front, ± hispid, cuspidate or awned, rarely obtuse and then the spikelet borne upon a short stipe; lower glume ovate, ± 1/3 the length of the spikelet, typically acute to acuminate; upper glume as long as the spikelet, acute to acuminate, rarely with a short awn-point or obtuse; lower floret ♂ or barren, with or without a palea, its lemma resembling the upper glume but often awned; upper lemma crustaceous, smooth and shining, its margins inrolled and clasping only the edges of the palea, terminating in a very short incurved laterally compressed ± herbaceous beak; upper palea acute (rarely obtuse) with the tip briefly reflexed and ± protruberant between the lemma margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis broadly elliptic, dorsally flattened.

[FZ]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence of racemes along a central axis, the spikelets paired or in short secondary racemelets, typically densely packed in 4 rows.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets narrowly elliptic to subrotund, flat on one side gibbous on the other, often hispidulous, the apex usually cuspidate or awned.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes acute to acuminate, the inferior usually c. 1/3, the superior as long as spikelet.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Inferior lemma often stiffly awned. Superior lemma crustaceous, terminating in a short, membranous, laterally compressed, incurved beak; superior palea acute, the apex briefly reflexed and slightly protruberant from lemma.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual (23/33), or perennial (11/33). Rhizomes absent (29), or elongated (5). Culms erect (18/30), or geniculately ascending (15/30), or decumbent (8/30), or prostrate (1/30), or rambling (1/30); reed-like (1/7), or robust (5/7), or of moderate stature (1/7), or slender (1/7); 10-110.3-400 cm long; spongy (3), or compressible (3), or firm (28), or wiry (1); without nodal roots (4/8), or rooting from lower nodes (8/8). Culm-internodes terete (2/3), or channelled (1/3). Culm-nodes swollen (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (5/7), or sparse (5/7), or ample (1/7). Ligule a fringe of hairs (20), or absent (15). Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate (1); stiff (1), or firm (33). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (5/5). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (8/8).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes; exserted (33), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Racemes borne along a central axis; not compacted (33), or in a multilateral false spike (1); appressed (6), or erect (8), or ascending (26), or spreading (2); unilateral; bearing 10-30 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Rhachis wingless (32), or narrowly winged (2); angular (24), or subterete (10). Spikelet packing adaxial (1/1); crowded (14), or contiguous (18), or lax (2); 2 -rowed (7), or 3 -rowed (6), or 4 -rowed (32), or 5 -rowed (4), or 6 -rowed (3). Spikelets appressed (1/1); solitary (3), or in pairs (31), or in threes (2), or clustered at each node (5). Fertile spikelets sessile (17), or sessile and pedicelled (4), or pedicelled (13); 2-4 in the cluster (5/5); subequal (18/18). Pedicels oblong (3/3); tip discoid (8/8).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (22), or oblong (1), or ovate (16), or orbicular (3), or obovate (1); dorsally compressed; symmetrical (11), or gibbous (20), or turgidly plano-convex (1), or plano-convex (2); 1.5-4.163-7.5 mm long; persistent on plant (2), or falling entire (32). Spikelet callus brief (30), or oblong (3), or globular (1); free from lower glume (30), or incorporating lowest rhachilla internode with adnate lower glume (4). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (32), or elongated between glumes (2).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (22), or oblong (1), or ovate (16), or orbicular (3), or obovate (1); dorsally compressed; symmetrical (11), or gibbous (20), or turgidly plano-convex (1), or plano-convex (2); 1.5-4.163-7.5 mm long; persistent on plant (2), or falling entire (32). Spikelet callus brief (30), or oblong (3), or globular (1); free from lower glume (30), or incorporating lowest rhachilla internode with adnate lower glume (4). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (32), or elongated between glumes (2).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate (33), or oblate (1); clasping (20/20); membranous (16/16), or chartaceous (2/16); without keels; 3 -veined (23/32), or 4 -veined (19/32), or 5 -veined (27/32), or 6 -veined (2/32), or 7 -veined (3/32). Lower glume surface smooth (16), or asperulous (3), or scabrous (15), or spinose (3); glabrous (22), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (3), or hispidulous (7), or hispid (5). Lower glume apex obtuse (3), or acute (14), or acuminate (7), or cuspidate (17); muticous (33), or mucronate (1). Upper glume elliptic (9), or ovate (26); not gibbous (33), or gibbous (1); membranous (32), or chartaceous (2); without keels; 3-4 -veined (2), or 5 -veined (30), or 6 -veined (7), or 7 -veined (9), or 8 -veined (1), or 9 -veined (3). Upper glume surface smooth (23), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (7), or spinose (5); glabrous (11), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (4), or hispidulous (16), or hispid (6); with simple hairs (24/26), or tubercle-based hairs (4/26). Upper glume apex obtuse (2/33), or acute (3/33), or acuminate (11/33), or cuspidate (19/33), or caudate (2/33); muticous (30), or mucronate (4), or awned (9); 1 -awned (9/9).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets male (19), or barren (20); with palea (29), or without significant palea (7). Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic (8), or ovate (26); membranous (32), or chartaceous (3); 3-4 -veined (1), or 5 -veined (28), or 6 -veined (8), or 7 -veined (13), or 9 -veined (1); without grooves (33), or sulcate (1); obtuse (3), or acute (7), or acuminate (18), or attenuate (1), or cuspidate (10); muticous (20), or mucronate (1), or awned (24). Fertile lemma elliptic (9), or oblong (1), or ovate (24), or orbicular (1); not gibbous (7), or gibbous (27); coriaceous (1), or indurate (33); of similar consistency above (4), or much thinner above (30); without keel; 5 -veined (23/23). Lemma lateral veins obscure (4/4). Lemma surface smooth (32), or striate (3). Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse (2), or acute (15), or acuminate (2), or cuspidate (8), or apiculate (4), or rostrate (3); without ornament (7), or laterally pinched (25), or scabrous (2); muticous (33), or mucronate (1). Palea reflexed at apex; 1 length of lemma; coriaceous (1), or indurate (33).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (14/14); ellipsoid (5/8), or oblong (5/8), or ovoid (1/8), or orbicular (1/8). Embryo 0.5-0.6825-0.8 length of caryopsis.
Distribution
Europe (4), or Africa (16), or Temperate Asia (7), or Tropical Asia (8), or Australasia (18), or Pacific (5), or North America (11), or South America (11).

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Azores, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Delaware, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Marianas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Nova Scotia, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Samoa, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South China Sea, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alberta, Argentina South, Aruba, Austria, Bahamas, Baltic States, Belgium, Bermuda, British Columbia, Caroline Is., Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Christmas I., Cook Is., Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Galápagos, Germany, Gilbert Is., Great Britain, Hawaii, Hungary, Juan Fernández Is., Kermadec Is., Kuril Is., Magadan, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Nauru, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Niue, Norfolk Is., North European Russi, Poland, Prince Edward I., Rodrigues, Sardegna, Society Is., Solomon Is., Southwest Caribbean, St.Helena, Sweden, Switzerland, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Vanuatu, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Wallis-Futuna Is., Western Australia

Echinochloa P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [6077], Brazil K001102337
Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [5061], Brazil K001102336
Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [5062], Brazil K001102335

First published in Ess. Agrostogr.: 53 (1812)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Ess. Agrost. 53 (1812)
  • F.T.A. 9: 604 (1920).

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Ess. Agrost.: 53 (1812) nom conserv.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Ess. Agrost.: 53 (1812), nom. conserv.

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0