Oryza L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 333 (1753)
This genus is accepted
The native range of this genus is Tropics & Subtropics.

Descriptions

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual (6), or perennial (12). Rhizomes absent (10), or short (5), or elongated (3). Culms erect (10), or geniculately ascending (10), or decumbent (8), or prostrate (1); robust (1/2), or of moderate stature (1/2); 30-107.1-300 cm long; spongy (4), or firm (14); rooting from lower nodes (3/3). Culm-nodes constricted (3/3). Lateral branches lacking (1/1). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (9), or erect (5), or falcate (4). Ligule an eciliate membrane (17), or a ciliolate membrane (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (17), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (1). Leaf-blades linear (17), or lanceolate (3). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (1/1), or evident (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle; exserted (17), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Panicle open (17), or contracted (1). Primary panicle branches not whorled (15), or whorled at lower nodes (2), or whorled at most nodes (1). Spikelets appressed (3/4), or spreading (1/4); solitary (17/17). Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels linear; tip cupuliform (14/14), or lobed (2/14).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (8), or oblong (11), or ovate (4), or orbicular (1); laterally compressed; symmetrical (17), or gibbous (1); 1.5-6.881-12 mm long; persistent on plant (2), or falling entire (16). Spikelet callus glabrous (12/12); base truncate (11/11); attached transversely (2/6), or attached obliquely (4/6). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (16), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (2). Rhachilla elongation stout (1/1).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (8), or oblong (11), or ovate (4), or orbicular (1); laterally compressed; symmetrical (17), or gibbous (1); 1.5-6.881-12 mm long; persistent on plant (2), or falling entire (16). Spikelet callus glabrous (12/12); base truncate (11/11); attached transversely (2/6), or attached obliquely (4/6). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (16), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (2). Rhachilla elongation stout (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes both absent or obscure.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret subulate (3), or linear (4), or lanceolate (12), or oblong (1); membranous (7/10), or herbaceous (1/10), or coriaceous (2/10); 1 -veined (13/13); emarginate (1/10), or acute (7/10), or acuminate (3/10); muticous (14/15), or awned (1/15). Fertile lemma elliptic (11), or oblong (6), or orbicular (3); laterally compressed; not gibbous (17), or gibbous (1); chartaceous (1), or coriaceous (17); keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (8), or spinulose (10); eciliate (14), or ciliate (3), or hispid (1). Lemma surface granulose (3), or scaberulous (2), or scabrous (4), or striate (1), or reticulate (11); glabrous (13), or hispidulous (5), or hispid (4); with simple hairs (8/9), or hooked hairs (1/9). Lemma margins interlocking with palea margins (9), or involute (9); eciliate (17), or ciliolate (1). Lemma apex acute (2/14), or rostrate (11/14), or caudate (1/14); muticous (5), or awned (14); 1 -awned (14/14). Principal lemma awn straight (14/14), or flexuous (2/14). Palea 0.9-0.9778-1 length of lemma; chartaceous (1), or coriaceous (16), or indurate (1); 3 -veined (17), or 5 -veined (1); without keels (1), or 1-keeled (17). Palea keels smooth (5/17), or scabrous (7/17), or spinulose (5/17). Palea surface glabrous (17), or pubescent (1). Palea apex muticous (14), or with excurrent keel veins (1), or awned (4).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 6 (16/16). Stigmas 2.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (16/16); lanceolate (1/4), or ellipsoid (2/4), or oblong (1/4), or ovoid (1/4). Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (1/1).
Distribution
Europe (1), or Africa (7), or Temperate Asia (5), or Tropical Asia (10), or Australasia (4), or Pacific (2), or North America (2), or South America (4).
[GB]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Erect annuals or perennials with flat leaf-blades and membranous ligules
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle open or rather dense; branches numerous, racemose with shortly pedicelled spikelets
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 3-flowered, strongly laterally compressed, falling entire from the pedicel; glumes absent or represented by obscure lips at the pedicel-tip; both lower florets represented only by narrow lemmas, these usually subulate or linear and much shorter than the spikelet
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Upper floret hermaphrodite; lemma coriaceous, strongly keeled, prominently 5-nerved, with or without an awn; palea similar but narrower, keeled, 3-nerved; stamens 6; stigmas 2.
[FTEA]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle often with simple raceme-like primary branches, the spikelets all alike, bisexual
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets with 1 fertile floret and 2 sterile lemmas, strongly laterally compressed; sterile lemmas up to half the length of the spikelet, subulate to narrowly ovate, coriaceous; fertile lemma coriaceous, strongly keeled, clasping the lateral nerves of the palea, awned or awnless; stamens 6.
Distribution
About 20 species in the tropics and subtropics.
[FSOM]

Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets shortly pedicelled, 1-flowered, solitary, laterally strongly compressed, deciduous or (in cultivated rice) persistent, hermaphrodite; rhachilla articulating above the rudimentary glumes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes 2, reduced to a narrow entire or 2-lobed rim, forming a cup-shaped cavity at the apex of the pedicel, whitish, green or reddish in colour.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Sterile lemmas 2, subequal in shape and size, usually very small (nearly as long as the spikelet only in one sp. from S. America), faintly 1-nerved or nerveless. Fertile lemmas 5-nerved (one pair of nerves very close to the margins), cymbiform, strongly keeled, coriaceous or rarely chartaceous, often tessellate or rugulose, usually awned, rarely awnless (in cultivated rice), usually with 2 short lateral protrusions at the apex; awn usually much longer than the spikelet, sometimes coloured, stiff or flexuous, often with a coloured basal callus.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Palea
Palea slightly shorter than the lemma, of the same consistency and indument but with the margins hyaline, 3- (rarely 5-) nerved, awnless, obtuse or acute to acuminate, usually tightly clasped by the inflexed margins of the lemma.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Lodicules
Lodicules 2, small, obovate or lanceolate-elliptic.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 6, with the filaments free.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigmas pilose, large, laterally exserted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis (usually firmly enclosed by lemma and palea thus forming the “husk”), laterally compressed, oblong to oblong-elliptic in outline, whitish to brown or reddish; embryo very small; hilum large, linear.
Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial grasses, growing in a variety of moist habitats.
Morphology Stem
Culms few- to many-noded, erect or ascending, sometimes floating, often spongy, usually hollow between the nodes.
Morphology Leaves Ligules
Ligule membranous, often lacerate, glabrous or pilose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence an open or contracted panicle, many-flowered, erect or drooping.
[FZ]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Culms decumbent; 50-90 cm long; rooting from lower nodes. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades coriaceous. Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle contracted. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels tip discoid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 10-12 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus attached transversely.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 10-12 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus attached transversely.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes both absent or obscure.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret subulate. Fertile lemma oblong; coriaceous; keeled; 9 -veined. Lemma apex rostrate; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn pungent. Palea 1 length of lemma; coriaceous; 4 -veined.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2. Anthers 6.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong; isodiametric; biconvex. Embryo 0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear; 1 length of caryopsis.
Distribution
Tropical Asia.
[GB]

Sources

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    • Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora.
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • 'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0