Parapholis C.E.Hubb.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Europe to Central Asia, N. Africa to Pakistan.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual (5), or perennial (1). Culms erect (4), or geniculately ascending (4); slender (1/1); 2-18.91-40 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades firm (5), or flaccid (1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes; subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (4), or an inflated leaf-sheath (2); exserted (4), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2). Racemes single; bilateral; bearing 5-9 fertile spikelets on each (1/3), or 10 fertile spikelets on each (2/3), or 11-14 fertile spikelets on each (1/3), or 15-20 fertile spikelets on each (2/3), or 21-30 fertile spikelets on each (1/3). Rhachis fragile at the nodes; subcylindrical and excavated. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; contiguous (1), or lax (5). Rhachis internodes oblong. Rhachis internode tip transverse. Spikelets sunken; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 3-5.416-9 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 3-5.416-9 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes collateral; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (5), or oblong (1), or ovate (1); 1 length of upper glume; coriaceous; without keels (4), or 1-keeled (2); wingless (4), or winged on keel (2); 3 -veined, or 4 -veined (5), or 5 -veined (4). Lower glume lateral veins ribbed. Lower glume apex acute (3), or acuminate (3). Upper glume lanceolate (5), or oblong (1), or ovate (1); 1.1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; without keels (4), or 1-keeled (2); wingless (4), or winged on keel (2); 3 -veined, or 4 -veined (5), or 5 -veined (4). Upper glume lateral veins ribbed. Upper glume apex acute (3), or acuminate (3).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma elliptic (1), or oblong (4), or ovate (2); membranous; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma lateral veins less than two thirds length of lemma (2/2). Lemma surface smooth (5), or scaberulous (1). Lemma apex obtuse (1/5), or acute (4/5). Palea 1 length of lemma.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (5/5). Hilum elliptic (5/5).
Distribution
Europe (5), or Africa (4), or Temperate Asia (5), or Tropical Asia (1), or Australasia (2), or North America (1), or South America (1).

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 10-27 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Racemes single; bilateral. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; subcylindrical and excavated. Spikelet packing adaxial. Rhachis internodes linear, or oblong. Spikelets sunken; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 5-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 5-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Upper glume lanceolate; 1-1.4 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins ribbed. Upper glume apex acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma lanceolate; membranous; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma lateral veins less than two thirds length of lemma. Lemma surface puberulous. Lemma apex acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ovoid. Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis.
Distribution
Europe, or Africa, or Temperate Asia, or Australasia, or North America, or South America.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Baleares, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Corse, Cyprus, Denmark, East Aegean Is., Egypt, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf States, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Spain, Sweden, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina South, Brazil South, California, Cape Provinces, Chile Central, Chile South, China Southeast, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Florida, Korea, Louisiana, Maryland, Mexico Northwest, Michigan, Mississippi, New Jersey, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Australia, South Carolina, Tasmania, Texas, Uruguay, Victoria, Virginia, Western Australia

Parapholis C.E.Hubb. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Blumea, Suppl. 3: 14 (1946)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00997-6. Scientific Data 8: 215.

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0