Genus:
Argemone L.

Argemone mexicana L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Central Mexico to Honduras. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders, has environmental uses and social uses, as animal food, a poison and a medicine and for fuel and food.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
cardosanto

[FTEA]

Papaveraceae, G. L. Lucas (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1962

Morphology General Habit
Herbs erect up to about 1.2 m. high, often branching near the base.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sessile, ± sheathing (amplexicaul); prickles if present mainly on the veins of the abaxial surface ; leaves with midrib and veins irregularly outlined in greyish-white on the adaxial surface.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 2.5–4.5 cm. in diameter, subtended by 1 or 2 foliaceous bracts.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 3, caducous, covered to a greater or lesser degree with prickles.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 6, yellow more rarely cream-white, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens numerous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Stigma and style persistent, 1–3 mm. long in fruit.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule oblong to broadly ellipsoid, 1.2–4.5 × 2.5 × 2.0 cm. ; valves 4–6, which split away from the vascular strands for about 1/3 of their length, exposing a cage-like frame of these vascular strands, attached apically to the persistent stigma ; outer valve-surface prickly in all tropical East African specimens seen (see Note below).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds up to 2 mm. in diameter, subspherical with a small beak at one end ; testa pitted in rows radiating from the micropyle end.
Figures
Fig. 1.
Habitat
Waste places, roadsides and abandoned cultivated ground ; 0–1800 m.
Distribution
a native of Central America introduced as a weed in East Africa as in most other tropical and subtropical regions of the world. K4 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T8 U2 U4 Z

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Erect herbs to c. 1.2 m high, glaucous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with ± clasping base, often with prickles on veins beneath; midrib and veins irregularly outlined in greyish white on the upper leaf surface
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 2.5–4.5 cm in diam., subtended by 1 or 2 leafy bracts
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 3, prickly
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 6, yellow or cream, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma and style persistent, 1–3 mm long in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule ± oblong, 1.2–4.5 cm long, dehiscing by 4–6 valves in apical part, leaving behind a cage-like frame of vascular strands
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds subglobose with a small beak at one end, up to 2 mm in diam.
Distribution
Specimens seen only from N3, but no doubt occurring also in other regions. Pantropical weed of Central American origin with seeds rich in oil.
Vernacular
Mexican poppy, prickly poppy (English)

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Elevation range: 75–2210 m a.s.l. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bolívar, Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Norte de Santander, Santander, Tolima, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Cardosanto, Tissly

[FWTA]

Papaveraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology General Habit
A prickly glaucous erect herb
Morphology General Exudate
Yellow juice
Morphology Leaves
Leaves semi-amplexicaul, pinnately lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers bright yellow
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule smooth or setose, 3–4 cm. long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds pitted-reticulate.

[FZ]

Papaveraceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Morphology General Habit
Erect, glaucous herb up to 1 m. tall.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sessile, ± amplexicaul, sinuate-pinnatifid with prickly teeth, often variegated.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 3.5–4.5 cm. in diam., bright yellow, cream or white.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 3 x 1.5 cm., ellipsoid.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 75 - 2210 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Distribution
Naturalised in Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Vernacular
Tissly.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 75 - 2210 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.

[UPB]
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua

Introduced into:

Alabama, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Aruba, Ascension, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Great Britain, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hawaii, Illinois, India, Indiana, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kansas, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mauritius, Michigan, Missouri, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Jersey, New South Wales, New York, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Oman, Ontario, Pakistan, Palestine, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Spanish
Cardosanto.

Argemone mexicana L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 1979 Mori, S.A. [11239], Brazil K001072256
Jan 1, 1975 Harley, R.M. [16380], Brazil K001072255
Jan 1, 1972 Pires, J.M. [58170a], Brazil K001072258
Jan 1, 1966 Eiten, G. [4869], Brazil K001072262
McWhirter, J. [147], Madagascar 31920.000
Hinton, G.B. [9999], Mexico K001134556
Arsene [584], Mexico K001134549
Mason, H.L. [1716], Mexico K001134548
Gonzalez Ortega, J. [133], Mexico K001134550
Miers, J. [3222], Brazil K001072263
Palmer, E. [111], Mexico K001134559
Gaumer, G.F. [s.n.], Mexico K001134558
Hinton, G.B. [3827], Mexico K001134565
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8126] K001129017
Sousa S., M. [5638], Mexico K001134557
Pringle, C.G. [8321], Mexico K001134545
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8126], India K001129021
Palmer, E. [152], Mexico K001134560
Agra, M.F. [1319], Brazil K001072253
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8126] K001129016
Nelson, E.W. [4134], Mexico K001134547
Arsene [s.n.], Mexico K001134552
Gardner, G. [1915], Brazil K001072260
Gaumer, G.F. [562], Mexico K001134564
Hinton, G.B. [284], Mexico K001134566
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8126], Nepal K001129020
Gentry, H.S. [1337], Mexico K001134553
Palmer, E. [111], Mexico K001134562
Hinton, G.B. [10014], Mexico K001134555
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8126] K001129018
Gaumer, G.F. [562], Mexico K001134546
Mori, S.A. [11239], Brazil K001072254
Martínez S., E.M. [24866], Mexico K001134568
Hinton, G.B. [7283], Mexico K001134554
Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001072257
Lowe, R.T. [s.n.], Cape Verde K001134469
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8126], Nepal K001129019
Cope, T.A. [RBG 576], Great Britain K000914603
Abbon [s.n.], Mexico K001134544
Gehrt, A. [s.n.], Brazil K001072252
Palmer, E. [477], Mexico K001134561
Pickersgill, B. [RU72/467], Brazil K001072259
Lowne, B.T. [61/87], Mexico K001134543
Gardner, G. [1915], Brazil K001072261
Valdez, P. [16], Mexico K001134563
Hinton, G.B. [3715], Mexico K001134567
Curtiss, A.H. [5653], Florida Argemone leiocarpa var. ochroleucoides K000653204

First published in Sp. Pl.: 508 (1753)

Accepted by

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Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

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Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Chev. Fl. Viv. 1: 145.
  • —F.T.A. 1: 54

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

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Kew Backbone Distributions

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  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
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  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1999). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 13: 1-284. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dufour-Dror, J.M. & Fragman-Sapir, O. in Dufour-Dror, J.M. (2019). Alien Plant Species in Natural & Disturbed Areas in Israel Alien Invasive Plants in Israel, ed. 2: 1-246. Dan Perry Pub., Nature & Parks Authority, Israel Ministry of Environmental Protection.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
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  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Fischer, E. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Papaveraceae: 1-23. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
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  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
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  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
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  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1984). Flora of Bhutan 1(2): 189-462. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (eds.) (2007). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, volumen VI, Dicotyledóneas (Haloragaceae-Phytolaccaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 111: 1-933. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
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  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
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  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
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  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
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Flora of Somalia

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Flora of Tropical East Africa

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Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2015). Listado de especies de Productos No Maderables del caribe colombiano. 366 registros, aportados por: Garcia, H. (Contacto del Recurso), López Camacho, R. (Creador del recurso), Espitia Palencia, L. (Proveedor del metadatos). Versión 2.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_bst-caribe_plantae_2015
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • Plants for malaria, plants for fever: Medicinal species in Latin America, a bibliographic survey: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Neotropikey

    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/