Argemone mexicana L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 508 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Central Mexico to Honduras. It is an annual and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders, has environmental uses and social uses, as animal food, a poison and a medicine and for fuel and food.

Descriptions

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
cardosanto
[UNAL]

Papaveraceae, G. L. Lucas (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1962

Morphology General Habit
Herbs erect up to about 1.2 m. high, often branching near the base.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sessile, ± sheathing (amplexicaul); prickles if present mainly on the veins of the abaxial surface ; leaves with midrib and veins irregularly outlined in greyish-white on the adaxial surface.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 2.5–4.5 cm. in diameter, subtended by 1 or 2 foliaceous bracts.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 3, caducous, covered to a greater or lesser degree with prickles.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 6, yellow more rarely cream-white, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens numerous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Stigma and style persistent, 1–3 mm. long in fruit.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule oblong to broadly ellipsoid, 1.2–4.5 × 2.5 × 2.0 cm. ; valves 4–6, which split away from the vascular strands for about 1/3 of their length, exposing a cage-like frame of these vascular strands, attached apically to the persistent stigma ; outer valve-surface prickly in all tropical East African specimens seen (see Note below).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds up to 2 mm. in diameter, subspherical with a small beak at one end ; testa pitted in rows radiating from the micropyle end.
Figures
Fig. 1.
Habitat
Waste places, roadsides and abandoned cultivated ground ; 0–1800 m.
Distribution
a native of Central America introduced as a weed in East Africa as in most other tropical and subtropical regions of the world. K4 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T8 U2 U4 Z
[FTEA]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Erect herbs to c. 1.2 m high, glaucous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with ± clasping base, often with prickles on veins beneath; midrib and veins irregularly outlined in greyish white on the upper leaf surface
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 2.5–4.5 cm in diam., subtended by 1 or 2 leafy bracts
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 3, prickly
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 6, yellow or cream, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma and style persistent, 1–3 mm long in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule ± oblong, 1.2–4.5 cm long, dehiscing by 4–6 valves in apical part, leaving behind a cage-like frame of vascular strands
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds subglobose with a small beak at one end, up to 2 mm in diam.
Distribution
Specimens seen only from N3, but no doubt occurring also in other regions. Pantropical weed of Central American origin with seeds rich in oil.
Vernacular
Mexican poppy, prickly poppy (English)
[FSOM]

Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Elevation range: 75–2210 m a.s.l. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bolívar, Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Norte de Santander, Santander, Tolima, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Cardosanto, Tissly
[UPFC]

Papaveraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology General Habit
A prickly glaucous erect herb
Morphology General Exudate
Yellow juice
Morphology Leaves
Leaves semi-amplexicaul, pinnately lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers bright yellow
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule smooth or setose, 3–4 cm. long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds pitted-reticulate.
[FWTA]

Papaveraceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Morphology General Habit
Erect, glaucous herb up to 1 m. tall.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sessile, ± amplexicaul, sinuate-pinnatifid with prickly teeth, often variegated.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 3.5–4.5 cm. in diam., bright yellow, cream or white.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 3 x 1.5 cm., ellipsoid.
[FZ]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 75 - 2210 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Distribution
Naturalised in Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Vernacular
Tissly.
[UPB]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 75 - 2210 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada
[CPLC]

Uses

Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.
[UPFC]

Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).
[UPB]

Common Names

English
Mexican Poppy
Spanish
Cardosanto.

Sources

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    • ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Neotropikey

    • Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/