Garcinia L.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

[FTEA]

Guttiferae, P. Bamps, N. Robson & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1978

Morphology General Habit
Trees or shrubs, rarely subshrubs, secreting a yellow latex when cut
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite or sometimes subopposite or whorled, petiolate, entire, coriaceous or chartaceous, the venation usually ± prominent, often with translucent glandular canals and brownish resin canals; petiole often with a ± prominent ligulate appendage
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers terminal or axillary, solitary or in few–many-flowered cymes, fascicles, racemes or panicles, fewer flowered in ♀ or hermaphrodite plants Male flowers: androecium of varied structure, mostly composed of 4(–5) fascicles of numerous stamens, each with filaments free or partially or completely fused together, the fascicles usually free in African species but in some extra-African ones the stamens can be totally joined to form a cup-like androecium; anthers occasionally transversely septate; sometimes with a whorl of sterile stamen bundles (“ fasciclodes ”) alternating with the stamen-bundles or forming a cushion in which the stamens are inserted, often interpreted as a fleshy cup-shaped 4–5-lobed or entire disc; ovary rudiment sometimes present Female and hermaphrodite flowers: 4(–5) stamen-bundles or staminode-bundles similar to ♂ flowers but smaller and with few members and sometimes with fasciclodes, free or fused together in a ring at the base of the ovary; ovary globose, 2–5(–12)-locular, each locule with 1 apical ovule; style usually absent; stigma ± sessile, broad, 2–5-lobed or entire, sometimes quite large and inflated, sticky
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 4, decussate, or sometimes 5, quincuncial, or 3, free
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4–5(–8), greenish white to yellow
sex Male
Male flowers: androecium of varied structure, mostly composed of 4(–5) fascicles of numerous stamens, each with filaments free or partially or completely fused together, the fascicles usually free in African species but in some extra-African ones the stamens can be totally joined to form a cup-like androecium; anthers occasionally transversely septate; sometimes with a whorl of sterile stamen bundles (“ fasciclodes ”) alternating with the stamen-bundles or forming a cushion in which the stamens are inserted, often interpreted as a fleshy cup-shaped 4–5-lobed or entire disc; ovary rudiment sometimes present
sex Female
Female and hermaphrodite flowers: 4(–5) stamen-bundles or staminode-bundles similar to ♂ flowers but smaller and with few members and sometimes with fasciclodes, free or fused together in a ring at the base of the ovary; ovary globose, 2–5(–12)-locular, each locule with 1 apical ovule; style usually absent; stigma ± sessile, broad, 2–5-lobed or entire, sometimes quite large and inflated, sticky
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a 1–4-seeded ± fleshy smooth or verrucose glabrous or puberulous berry, with large seeds coated in pulpy tissue.

[FZ]

Guttiferae, N. K. B. Robson. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

Morphology General Habit
Trees or shrubs, rarely shrublets, secreting a yellow latex.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, or sometimes subopposite or whorled, petiolate, entire, coriaceous, with venation usually ± prominent, often with translucent glandular canals and brownish resin canals; petiole with a ± prominent ligulate appendage.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 4, decussate (or occasionally 5, quincuncial, or 3), free.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4 (5), greenish-white to yellow.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers with androecium of 4 (5) fascicles of stamens, each with filaments free or partially or completely fused together, the fascicles usually free in African species, with anthers sometimes transversely septate; and sometimes with a whorl of sterile stamen-fascicles ("fasciclodes") alternating with the stamen-fascicles or forming a cushion in which the stamens are inserted; ovary-vestige sometimes present. Female usually with 4 (5) stamen- or staminode-fascicles, similar to those of the male flowers but smaller and with fewer members, and sometimes with fasciclodes, free or fused together in a ring at the base of the ovary; ovary globular, 2–5 (12)-locular; loculi 1-ovulate; styles absent; stigma sessile, broad, 2–5-lobed or entire, sticky. Bisexual flowers like female. Flowers terminal or axillary, solitary or in few- to many-flowered cymes, fewer in the female or bisexual plants, dioecious or polygamous, rarely bisexual.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a 1–4-seeded ± fleshy berry, with tough epidermis.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds large, arillate.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Trees or shrubs, with a yellow latex, polygamous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite or whorled, leathery
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals (3–)4(–5)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4–5(–8)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers mostly with 4(–5) bundles of many stamens Female and bisexual flowers with fewer stamens and a globose, 2–5(–12)-celled ovary, each cell with 1 apical ovule; style obsolete and the broad stigma ± sessile
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a 1–4-seeded berry, with large seeds coated in pulpy tissue.
Distribution
Some 400 species in the tropics.

Native to:

Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, French Guiana, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Society Is.

Garcinia L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Mar 1, 2009 Williams [1176], Brazil K000324899 No
Nov 1, 2003 Onana, J.-M. [1864], Cameroon K000197859 No
Nov 1, 2003 Onana, J.-M. [1865], Cameroon K000197861 No
Jul 1, 2002 Nwaga, D. [19], Cameroon K000026958 No
Jan 1, 1990 Thomas, D.W. [2674], Cameroon K000105264 No
Jan 1, 1990 Thomas, D.W. [3306], Cameroon K000105263 No
Brenan, J.P.M. [8428], Nigeria 22125.000 No
Thailand 46647.000 No
Coode [6019], Indonesia 55477.000 No
Harris, D.J. [2370], Central African Republic 60051.000 No
Frodin, D.G. [2491], New Guinea 60075.000 No
Ash [441], Ethiopia 6049.362 No
Coode, M.J.E. [6907], Brunei 61309.000 No
Cheek, M. [9084], Cameroon 61668.000 No
Milliken, W. [880], Indonesia 62753.000 No
Frodin, D.G. [2362A], New Guinea 63177.000 No
DuPuy, B. [MB 393], Madagascar 63558.000 No
Etuge, M. [1657], Cameroon 63805.000 No
Johns, R.J. [8765], Indonesia 72670.000 No
Utteridge, T.M.A. [315], Indonesia 70000.097 No
Davis, A.P. [1085], Madagascar 72949.000 No
Letouzey, R. [14052], Cameroon K000105262 No
Thomas, D.W. [2675], Cameroon K000105265 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Assam K001132292 Yes
Burgt, X.M. van der [912], Cameroon K000460346 No
Burgt, X.M. van der [664], Cameroon K000023275 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], China K001132819 Yes
Walker, J.S. [DB046], Sulawesi 73336.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [13229], Bolivia Rheedia 57453.000 No
Pennington, R.T. [10], Bolivia Rheedia 57633.000 No
Baron, R. [6994], Madagascar Rheedia K000380197 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 443 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS G: 1-40325.
  • Nazre, M. & al. (2018). Taxonomic Revision of Garcinia Section Garcinia (Clusiaceae) Phytotaxa 373: 1-52.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & Dauby, G. (2012). Contribution to the taxonomy of Garcinia (Clusiaceae) in Africa, including two new species from Gabon and a key to the Lower Guinean species PhytoKeys 17: 41-62.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 1: 164.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 202 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 443 (1753)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin & G. Moggi [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 202 (1754)
  • Pierre, Fl. Forest, Cochinchin. 1: Enum. Espèces du Genre Garcina I-XL, t. 54–83 (1882–83)
  • Sp. Pl.: 443 (1753)

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China

    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images