Cichorium intybus L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 813 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Europe to Central Asia and W. Himalaya, Macaronesia to N. Africa. It is a perennial and grows primarly in the temperate biome(s). It is has social uses, as animal food, a poison and a medicine and for food.

Distribution

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, Sinai, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alberta, Altay, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Cape Provinces, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colorado, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Georgia, Great Britain, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Ireland, Irkutsk, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kamchatka, Kansas, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Laos, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Maine, Malaya, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Myanmar, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Philippines, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Réunion, Sakhalin, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yemen, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Accepted Infraspecifics

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • GCC in GCC (2011). Global Compositae Checklist. Global Compositae Checklist http://compositae.landcareresearch.co.nz/.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names. Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A., Edmondson, J.R. & Hind, D.J.N. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Iraq 6: 1-458. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1992). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 6: 1-428. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Komiljon, T., Natalya, B., Avazbek, B., Dilnoza, A., Ziyoviddin, Y., Deng, T. & Sun, H. (2020). Flora of the Dzhizak Province, Uzbekistan: 1-523. China Forestry Publishing House.
  • Kozhevnikov, A.E., Kozhevnikov, Z.V., Kwak, M. & Lee, B.Y. (2019). Illustrated flora of the Primorsky Territory, Russian Far East: 1-1124. National institute of biological resources.
  • Krasnoborov, I.M. (ed.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 13: 1-499. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Litvinskaya, S.A. & Murtazaliev, R.A. (2013). Flora of the Northern Caucasus: An Atlas and Identification Book: 1-688. Fiton XXI.
  • Meades, S.J. & Brouillet, L. (2019). Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador https://www.newfoundland-labradorflora.com/checklist/.
  • Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkowa, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M (2020). Vascular plants of Poland an annotated checklist: 1-526. W. Szafer institute of botany, Polish academy of sciences, Krakow, Poland.
  • Pruski, J.F. (ed.) (2018). Flora Mesoamericana 5(2): 1-608. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Schäfer, H. (2021). Flora of the Azores a field guide: 1-445. Margraf Publishers GmbH.
  • de Salas, MF, Baker, ML (2022). A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania, including Macquarie Island: 1-161. Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart. https://flora.tmag.tas.gov.au/resources/census/.

Kew Species Profiles

  • Adanson, M. (1763). Familles des Plantes.
  • Brickell, C. (Ed.) (2003). The Royal Horticultural Society A–Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. Dorling Kindersley Ltd., London.
  • Hamilton, N. (2007). Grow Organic: Fruit and Vegetables Fresh From Your Garden. New Holland Publishers (UK) Ltd., London.
  • Kiers, A. M. (2000). Endive, Chicory, and their Wild Relatives: a Systematic and Phylogenetic Study of Cichorium (Asteraceae). National Herbarium Nederland, Universiteit Leiden branch.
  • Mabberley, D. J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-book: a Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classification and Uses. 3rd edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Mahr, S. (2012). The Wisconsin Master Gardener Program species page.
  • Missouri Botanical Garden (2013). Tropicos, Name search.
  • The Royal Horticultural Society (2013). RHS Grow Your Own.
  • USDA, NRCS. (2013). The PLANTS Database, National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.
  • Vaughan, J. G. & Geissler, C. A. (2009). The New Oxford Book of Food Plants. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2020). https://www.jstor.org/stable/26958715. epublication.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic. Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • GCC in GCC (2011). Global Compositae Checklist. Global Compositae Checklist http://compositae.landcareresearch.co.nz/.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1992). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 6: 1-428. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Krasnoborov, I.M. (ed.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 13: 1-499. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Pruski, J.F. (ed.) (2018). Flora Mesoamericana 5(2): 1-608. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Allen, D., Bilz, M., Leaman, D.J., Miller, R.M., Timoshyna, A., & Window, J. (2014). European Red List of medicinal plants. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg 10:907382.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • Plants for malaria, plants for fever: Medicinal species in Latin America, a bibliographic survey: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Ross-Craig, S., United Kingdom 25939.000 No
Rico, L. [1202], Bolivia K000295118 No
s.coll. [s.n.] K000796600 Yes
Cope, T.A. [RBG 272], United Kingdom K000914408 Yes
Sheahan, M-C. [MCS270] K000696390 No
s.coll. [s.n.] K000796599 Yes
Hunter, A. [s.n.], Tamil Nadu K000796601 Yes

Sources

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Kew Species Profiles

    • Kew Species Profiles
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0