Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.
Physalis angulata

[UNAL]
Vernacular
Topotoropo, Uchuva, Uva, Vejigón

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1780 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, subarbusto
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Type
Type: Linnean specimen 247.9 (LINN, lectotype, IDC microfiche neg. 137.II.!) of a plant cultivated in the “Hortus Botanicus Upsaliensis”, Uppsala, Sweden, probably from Central America.
Morphology General
Erect to procumbent or prostrate, weak to ± robust, often diffusely much branched, sometimes dichotomously so, annual (or rarely ?short-lived perennial) herb, sometimes ± tinged purple, glabrous or sparsely clothed with simple, ± appressed, short and minute, usually eglandular hairs, more abundant especially on new growth, furnished also with ± sessile glands
Morphology Branches
Branches angular or angular-ribbed, striate, drying ± sulcate, glabrous or puberulous Branches angular or angular-ribbed, striate, drying ± sulcate, glabrous or puberulous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves usually solitary; petiole (0.5)1–5(7) cm long; lamina (1. 5)2–8(10) × (0.5)1. 5–4.5(6) cm, ovate to lanceolate, sometimes elliptic or ± oblong, rarely subrotund, obovate or oblanceolate, base cuneate or attenuate, sometimes obtuse, rounded, truncate or subcordate, and often oblique or unequal-sided, ± decurrent into the petiole, apex acute or acutely acuminate, sometimes sub-acute or obtuse, deeply or coarsely dentate to entire, the teeth unequal, very acute to rather obtuse, the sinuses rounded, ± glabrous or sparsely puberulous on the nerves and sometimes also near the margins mainly beneath Leaves usually solitary; petiole (0.5)1–5(7) cm long; lamina (1.5)2–8(10) × (0.5)1.5–4.5(6) cm, ovate to lanceolate, sometimes elliptic or ± oblong, rarely subrotund, obovate or oblanceolate, base cuneate or attenuate, sometimes obtuse, rounded, truncate or subcordate, and often oblique or unequal-sided, ± decurrent into the petiole, apex acute or acutely acuminate, sometimes sub-acute or obtuse, deeply or coarsely dentate to entire, the teeth unequal, very acute to rather obtuse, the sinuses rounded, ± glabrous or sparsely puberulous on the nerves and sometimes also near the margins mainly beneath.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, axillary, erect to nodding. Flowers solitary, axillary, erect to nodding; pedicel greenish, violaceous or purplish, (5)6–12(16) mm long, glabrous or rarely with scattered, minute hairs, usually with ± sessile glands, in fruit elongating to 22(25) mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicel greenish, violaceous or purplish, (5)6–12(16) mm long, glabrous or rarely with scattered, minute hairs, usually with ± sessile glands, in fruit elongating to 22(25) mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx (2.5)3–5(7) mm long, (2)2.5–3.5(4) mm across at the base of the lobes, campanulate, sub-angled or ribbed, truncate or invaginated at the base, puberulous sometimes only along the nerves or subglabrous, usually with ± sessile glands more abundant towards the base, on the inside glabrous except for the lobes with ± dense, minute indumentum on the upper half or only near the apex and the margins; lobes unequal or subequal, (1. 2)1. 5–3(3.5) × 1–2 mm, ovate-triangular or deltoid to triangular-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, occasionally sub-acute or obtuse, ciliate; in fruit green to greenish-yellow, often darker veined, sometimes purple towards the base or also with purplish venation, 20–30(35) × 15–25(30) mm, ovoid or subglobose slightly 10-angled or 10-ribbed, sometimes ± terete, shortly acuminate or slightly apiculate at the summit, half to three-quarters filled by the fruit, ± glabrous, often scabrid near or at the margins and apex of the lobes, the lobes 3–7(8) × 2–4(5) mm Calyx (2.5)3–5(7) mm long, (2)2.5–3.5(4) mm across at the base of the lobes, campanulate, sub-angled or ribbed, truncate or invaginated at the base, puberulous sometimes only along the nerves or subglabrous, usually with ± sessile glands more abundant towards the base, on the inside glabrous except for the lobes with ± dense, minute indumentum on the upper half or only near the apex and the margins; lobes unequal or subequal, (1.2)1.5–3(3.5) × 1–2 mm, ovate-triangular or deltoid to triangular-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, occasionally sub-acute or obtuse, ciliate; in fruit green to greenish-yellow, often darker veined, sometimes purple towards the base or also with purplish venation, 20–30(35) × 15–25(30) mm, ovoid or subglobose slightly 10-angled or 10-ribbed, sometimes ± terete, shortly acuminate or slightly apiculate at the summit, half to three-quarters filled by the fruit, ± glabrous, often scabrid near or at the margins and apex of the lobes, the lobes 3–7(8) × 2–4(5) mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow or greenish-yellow to whitish, usually unmarked, sometimes red-brown to greyish-brown or mauve at the mouth or also so towards the base, more rarely blotched with 5 fuscous or purplish markings slightly or not contrasting with the surrounding limb, (4)5–9(10) mm long, infundibular-rotate or tubular-campanulate; tube ± glabrous, with a few, sessile glands, on the inside somewhat hairy with minute hyaline hairs, also with ± sessile glands, with a ring of hyaline hairs at the mouth; limb (4)6–11(12) mm across, shortly 5-lobed, erect or spreading, occasionally reflexed when fully expanded, with dense, ± appressed, short hairs and also sessile glands on the parts not folded in bud, glabrous inside, ciliate Corolla yellow or greenish-yellow to whitish, usually unmarked, sometimes red-brown to greyish-brown or mauve at the mouth or also so towards the base, more rarely blotched with 5 fuscous or purplish markings slightly or not contrasting with the surrounding limb, (4)5–9(10) mm long, infundibular-rotate or tubular-campanulate; tube ± glabrous, with a few, sessile glands, on the inside somewhat hairy with minute hyaline hairs, also with ± sessile glands, with a ring of hyaline hairs at the mouth; limb (4)6–11(12) mm across, shortly 5-lobed, erect or spreading, occasionally reflexed when fully expanded, with dense, ± appressed, short hairs and also sessile glands on the parts not folded in bud, glabrous inside, ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens included or exserted, subequal or unequal, glabrous; filaments (1. 5)2–4(5) mm long, filiform, attached to the corolla tube near the base; anthers bluish or violaceous, sometimes fading yellowish, 1. 5–2.5 mm long, oblong or narrowly ovate-oblong in outline, straight after anthesis Stamens included or exserted, subequal or unequal, glabrous; filaments (1.5)2–4(5) mm long, filiform, attached to the corolla tube near the base; anthers bluish or violaceous, sometimes fading yellowish, 1.5–2.5 mm long, oblong or narrowly ovate-oblong in outline, straight after anthesis.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk 0.2–0.3 mm high, fleshy, glabrous Disk 0.2–0.3 mm high, fleshy, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 1. 2–2 × 1–1. 8 mm, subglobose or ± ovoid, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style (3)3.5–5(6) mm long, filiform, straight or curved upwards
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit green to yellow, sessile on the invaginated base of the pendulous calyx, (10)11–15(16) mm in diameter, ± globose, viscid Fruit green to yellow, sessile on the invaginated base of the pendulous calyx, (10)11–15(16) mm in diameter, ± globose, viscid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds yellowish to pale brown or rufescent, 1. 3–1. 8 × 1–1. 5 mm, ovate, elliptic or ± orbicular in outline, sometimes reniform, reticulate-foveate Seeds yellowish to pale brown or rufescent, 1.3–1.8 × 1–1.5 mm, ovate, elliptic or ± orbicular in outline, sometimes reniform, reticulate-foveate.
Note
Chromosome number: 2n=48
Distribution
Native to tropical America (probably Central America), now extending northwards into Canada (Manitoba) and southwards throughout Central America and the Antilles to southern Argentina. Mozambique BOT N, ZAM W, ZAM S, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM S, MOZ Z, MOZ T, MOZ GI, MOZ M Zambia Zimbabwe Botswana.
Morphology General Habit
Erect to procumbent or prostrate, weak to ± robust, often diffusely much branched, sometimes dichotomously so, annual (or rarely ?short-lived perennial) herb, sometimes ± tinged purple, glabrous or sparsely clothed with simple, ± appressed, short and minute, usually eglandular hairs, more abundant especially on new growth, furnished also with ± sessile glands.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 1.2–2 × 1–1.8 mm, subglobose or ± ovoid, glabrous; style (3)3.5–5(6) mm long, filiform, straight or curved upwards.
Cytology
Chromosome number: 2n=48.

[FWTA]

Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Erect glabrous annual up to 3 ft. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers cream.

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: “Habitat in India utraque”, Herb. Linnaeus 247.9 (LINN!, lecto.) designated by Fernandes in Bol. Soc. Brot., Ser. 2, 44: 352 (1970) [rather than the different lectotype designated by D’Arcy in Woodson & Schery in Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 60: 662 (1974), fide Jarvis Order out of Chaos: 741 (2007)]
Morphology General Habit
Annual herb up to 60 cm (rarely to 1 m) high.
Morphology Stem
Main stems erect, branched, greenish-brown or purple-tinged, sparsely pilose on young parts with short simple hairs, becoming glabrescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves soft, dull green, alternate, ovate-lanceolate to ovate, rarely linear-lanceolate, 4.8–8.4 × 2.2–5.3 cm, bases cuneate, often oblique, sometimes decurrent, margins irregularly serrate with antrorse acute, often deep teeth, rarely sinuate or sinuate-dentate, apices acute, sparsely pilose, denser on veins, midribs and lower surfaces, becoming glabrescent; petioles 1.5–5 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, in leaf or branch axils; pedicels filiform, (4–)9–12 mm long, erect in flower, (7–)10–26 mm long, erect to recurved in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx cupulate, 3–4.5 mm long, shortly pilose, with 5 narrowly triangular acute lobes 1.2–2.5 × 0.6–1.5 mm, margins ciliate, enlarged, persistent and glabrescent in fruit with lobes 3–6.5 × 2–2.2 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow, sometimes with pale purple markings, campanulate, 0.6–1 × 0.5–1.2 cm diameter, unpleasantly aromatic, margin ciliate with five broadly triangular obtuse lobes 1–2 × 2.5–6 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens sometimes visible in corolla throat; filaments free for 2.6–3.5 mm; anthers purple or yellow and purple, oblong, bilobed, 1.2–2 × 0.4–0.7 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary brownish, ovoid, 1.5–2 × 1–2 mm, smooth, glabrous; disc ± 2 mm diameter; style sometimes exserted, 4.1–5 mm long; stigma 0.2–0.4 × 0.4–0.8 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit pale green to yellow, usually globose but distinctly 5-angled, 0.7–1.1 cm diameter, smooth, subsessile or on inverted gynobase of enlarged and inflated reticulately-veined, glabrescent, pale green, ovoid calyx, 2.2–3 × 1.8–1.9 cm, the mouth closed by connivent lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds yellow-orange, discoid to orbicular, 1.2–1.8 × 1.1–1.4 mm, compressed
Figures
Fig 15/12–15, p 72
Ecology
Ruderal of waste places, damp areas, swamp edges, riverine sand banks or weed of cultivated crops (e.g. rice); 90–1600 m
Conservation
Widespread; least concern (LC)
Note
This is often known as the “cut-leaved ground cherry”; the berries are eaten or made into preserves and pies and it is used as a vegetable in T 3. Specimens collected in Zanzibar ( Faulkner 2937 & 3129) were considered by Brenan & Meikle in 1965 to be the first African specimens of true P. minima – which is now considered to be a synonym of P. angulata. Agnew (1994) included P. minima as a distinct species, but in his first edition (1974) he mentioned that it might only be a variety of P. angulata, distinguishable by being more hairy and having smaller fruits. In his second edition he recorded that “ P. minima” occurred in K 3 5 up to 2170 m; the variation that he noted could be partly associated with higher altitude plants. No herbarium specimens of typical P. angulata from Kenya were seen during this revision.
Distribution
Flora districts: T3 T6 T8 Z Range: Native to tropical America, now a common weed of temperate and tropical areas, including most of Africa

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, up to c. 0.5 m tall, sparsely and shortly pubescent or glabrescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate; blade ovate to elliptic, 3–8 x 1.5–5 cm, cuneate at the base, acute or acuminate at the apex, with entire to dentate margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels c. 1–2.5 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 3–5 mm long in flower, up to c. 30 mm in fruit, lobed almost halfway into lanceolate lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla pale yellow or white, spotted in throat, 0.6–0.8 cm in diam. Berry c. 1.2 cm in diam. Seeds c. 2 mm in diam.
Distribution
S2 native to tropical America, now widespread in the tropics and subtropics.
Ecology
Low altitude
Note
First record for Somalia (from Buulo Warbe at 44°10´E, 1°35´N).

[FWTA]

Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
A very variable annual, stems more or less prostrate or sometimes erect up to 3 ft. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers cream
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx in fruiting state bladder-like.

Native to:

Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Galápagos, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Kentucky, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, New Mexico, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Afghanistan, Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bermuda, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, Hawaii, Illinois, India, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kirgizstan, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Line Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Mali, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New South Wales, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Phoenix Is., Queensland, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tuvalu, Uzbekistan, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Physalis angulata L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jun 19, 2006 Ambriansyah et al. [AA 3052], Kalimantan K000224080
Jun 8, 2004 Jones [234], Sabah K000224830
Feb 1, 2002 Pollard, B.J. [107], Cameroon K000109666
Jan 1, 1997 Burchell, W.J. [8518], Brazil K001071949
Jan 1, 1997 Gardner, G. [s.n.], Brazil K001071950
Sep 1, 1994 Nascimento, M.S.B. [26], Brazil K001071942
Jan 1, 1994 Prance, G.T. [7718], Brazil K001071947
Jan 1, 1994 Barbosa da Silva, M. [3], Brazil K001071946
Jan 1, 1994 Prance, G.T. [2550], Brazil K001071943
Jan 1, 1994 Prance, G.T. [5271], Brazil K001071944
Jan 1, 1994 Archer, W.A. [7773], Brazil K001071945
Jan 1, 1992 Beck, H.T. [115], Brazil K001071938
Jul 1, 1990 Agra, M.F. [1198], Brazil K001071939
Jan 1, 1987 Balée, W.L. [1994], Brazil K001071936
Jan 1, 1987 Nee, M. [34967A], Brazil K001071941
Jan 1, 1985 Cid Ferreira, C.A. [4158], Brazil K001071937
Jan 1, 1976 Harley, R.M. [17443], Brazil K001071935
Jan 1, 1851 Spruce, R. [512], Brazil K001071952
Linden, J. [256], Mexico K000042253
González O., J. [7074], Mexico K000042254
Morton, C.V. [2556], Mexico K000042257
s.coll. [362], Jawa K000759435
Bolland, G. [17], Brazil K001071958
Hollrung, M. [892], Papua New Guinea K000759436
Burchell, W.J. [10070], Brazil K001071948
Poiteau, P.A. [s.n.], French Guiana K001071954
Chagas e Silva, F. [75], Brazil K001071940
Thompson, S.A. [1373], Cameroon K000028678
Drouet, F. [2400], Brazil K001071957
Miller, J.S. [6167], Madagascar K000489018
Palmer, E. [325], Mexico K000042256
Kerr, J.G. [s.n.], Argentina K001071951
Glaziou, A.F.M. [13091], Brazil K001071956
Palmer, E. [622], Mexico K000042252
Thomas, D.W. [3268], Cameroon K000028677
Trail, J.W.H. [514], Brazil K001071955
González O., J. [7074], Mexico K000042255
Spruce, R. [512], Brazil K001071953
Bourgeau, M. [1249], Mexico Physalis linkiana K000042322
Gardner, G. [1083], Brazil Physalis linkiana K001071959
Parker [s.n.], Guyana Physalis linkiana K001071960
Aug 1, 2009 Diwol Sundaling [142154], Sabah Physalis minima K000610959
May 1, 2009 Klappa [55], Papua New Guinea Physalis minima K000610577
Jun 19, 2006 Kessler et al. [PK 2906], Sulawesi Physalis minima K000224082
Jun 19, 2006 Tawadong [130948], Sabah Physalis minima K000224083
Jan 1, 2004 Spruce, R. [6365], Ecuador Physalis minima K000201920
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2633] Physalis minima K001116693

First published in Sp. Pl.: 183 (1753)

Accepted by

  • (2020). Pullaiah, T. & Karuppusamy, S. Flora of the Eastern Ghats 7: 1-474.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Beaman, J. & Anderson, C. (2004). The plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural History Publications (Borneo).
  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • D'Arcy, W.G. & Rakotozafy, A. (1994). Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 176: 1-146. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Stoddard, D.R. (1994). Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific Atoll Research Bulletin 393: 1-60.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Goodwin, Z.A. & al. (2013). A checklist of the vascular plants of the lowland savannas of Belize, Central America Phytotaxa 101: 1-119.
  • H?, P.-H. (1993). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam 2(2): 611-1191. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Heine, H. (1976). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 7: 1-212. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hul, S. & Dy Phon, P. (2014). Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêt-Nam 35: 1-93. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Longbottom, W.D., Naczi, R.F.C. & Knapp, W.M. (2016). Flowering plant species new to Delaware and Maryland Bartonia 69: 1-19.
  • Lorence, D.H. & Wagnwe, W.L. (2020). Flora of the Marquesas Islands 2: 413-1135. National Tropical Botanic Garden, Smithsonian, DRPF.
  • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Merrill, E.D. (1923). An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants 3: 1-628. Bureau of Science, Manila.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Ohwi, J. (1984). Flora of Japan (in English): 1-1067. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Pretz, C. & Deanna, R. (2020). Typifications and nomenclatural notes on Physalis (Solanaceae) from the United States Taxon 69: 170-192.
  • Sachet, M.-H. (1983). Takapoto atoll, Tuamotu archipelago: terrestrial vegetation and flora Atoll Research Bulletin 277: 1-41.
  • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thaman, R.R. & Tye, A. (2015). Flora of Kiritimari (Christmass) atoll, Northern Line islands, Republic of Kiribati Atoll Research Bulletin 608: 1-73.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
  • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Baldwin & Speese in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 78, 3: 255.
  • Berhaut Fl Sén. 174, 195
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 249
  • O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 6: 140 (1909), for full synonymy
  • Sp. Pl. 183 (1753)

Flora Zambesiaca

  • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 448 (1852).
  • Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl., ed. 2: 244 (1994).
  • Ann. Fac. Agr. Univ. Bari 29: 541 (1978).
  • Ann. Mus. Congo, Bot., Sér. V, [Études Fl. Bas-Moyen-Congo] 3: 472 (1912)
  • Bol. Soc. Brot., Sér. 2, 44: 351, 367, t. 3, t. 10 fig. A–L (1970).
  • Bull. Jard. Bot. État 4: 192 (1914)
  • Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 78, 3: 254–257 (1951).
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 248 (1906).
  • Fitoter. 48, 3: 126 (1977).
  • Fl. Cabo Verde, fam. 71: 38 (2002).
  • Fl. Salut. 5: 17 (1968)
  • Garcia de Orta 17: 284 (1969)
  • Grabandt, Weeds of Crops & Gard. South. Afr.: 130 (1985).
  • Ivens, East Afr. Weeds: 218, 220 (1967).
  • Merxmüller, Prodr. Fl. SW. Afrika, fam. 124: 9 (1969).
  • Pl. Bequaert. 1: 412 (1922).
  • Rhodora 69: 216 (1967).
  • Robyns, Fl. Sperm. Parc Nat. Alb. 2: 205 (1947).
  • Ross, Fl. Natal: 308 (1972).
  • Sp. Pl.: 183 (1753)
  • Webbia 22: 507, 514, 516 (1967)
  • Webbia 23: 277 (1968)
  • Wild, Common Rhod. Weeds: fig. 86 (1955).
  • ed. 2: 262 (1762).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2019). https://doi.org/10.3897/italianbotanist.8.48621 epublication.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Beaman, J. & Anderson, C. (2004). The plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural History Publications (Borneo).
  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Craib, W.G. (1954). Florae Siamensis enumeratio 3(2): 1-81. Siam society, Bangkok, Thailand.
  • D'Arcy, W.G. & Rakotozafy, A. (1994). Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 176: 1-146. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Stoddard, D.R. (1994). Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific Atoll Research Bulletin 393: 1-60.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Gaur, R.D. (1999). Flora of the district of Garhwal north west Himalaya: 1-811. Transmedia, Srinagar, India.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Goodwin, Z.A. & al. (2013). A checklist of the vascular plants of the lowland savannas of Belize, Central America Phytotaxa 101: 1-119.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Heine, H. (1976). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 7: 1-212. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hul, S. & Dy Phon, P. (2014). Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêt-Nam 35: 1-93. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Kochkareva, T.F. (ed.) (1986). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 8: 1-519. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Longbottom, W.D., Naczi, R.F.C. & Knapp, W.M. (2016). Flowering plant species new to Delaware and Maryland Bartonia 69: 1-19.
  • Lorence, D.H. & Wagnwe, W.L. (2020). Flora of the Marquesas Islands 2: 413-1135. National Tropical Botanic Garden, Smithsonian, DRPF.
  • Merrill, E.D. (1923). An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants 3: 1-628. Bureau of Science, Manila.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Ohwi, J. (1984). Flora of Japan (in English): 1-1067. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Sachet, M.-H. (1983). Takapoto atoll, Tuamotu archipelago: terrestrial vegetation and flora Atoll Research Bulletin 277: 1-41.
  • Schönbeck-Temesy, E. (1972). Flora Iranica 100: 1-82. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thaman, R.R. & Tye, A. (2015). Flora of Kiritimari (Christmass) atoll, Northern Line islands, Republic of Kiribati Atoll Research Bulletin 608: 1-73.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • Verloove, F. (2019). Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium http://alienplantsbelgium.be.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
  • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 448 (1852)
  • F.P.N.A. 2: 205 (1947)
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 248 (1906)
  • F.W.T.A. 2nd ed., 2: 329 (1963)
  • F.Z. 8(4): 50 (2005)
  • Fl. Egypt 3: 41 (2002)
  • Fl. Egypt 6: 41 (1998)
  • Fl. Eth. 5: 152 (2006).
  • Fl. Somalia 3: 202 (2006)
  • Lam., Encycl. Méth. Bot. 2: 101 (1786)
  • Rhodora & 69: 216 (1969)
  • Rhodora 60: 162 (1958)
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 183 (1753)
  • U.K.W.F., 2nd ed.: 244 (1994)

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0