Physalis peruviana L.

First published in Sp. Pl. ed. 2.: 1670 (1763)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Bolivia to W. Brazil. It is a perennial and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome. It is used as a poison and a medicine, has environmental uses and for food.

Distribution

Native to:

Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil West-Central

Introduced into:

Angola, Ascension, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bermuda, Botswana, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Bulgaria, Burundi, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chile Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Free State, Gabon, Galápagos, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Great Britain, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Hungary, India, Italy, Jamaica, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kazan-retto, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Palestine, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Somalia, South Australia, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tristan da Cunha, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Venezuela, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Synonyms

Homotypic Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • (2019). http://collectaneabotanica.revistas.csic.es/index.php/collectaneabotanica/article/view/280/391. epublication.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis. PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
  • Castroviejo, S. (ed.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Iberica 11: 1-672. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
  • D'Arcy, W.G. & Rakotozafy, A. (1994). Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 176: 1-146. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
  • Essl, F. & Follak, S. (2010). Bemerkenswerte floristische Funde aus Wien, Niederösterreich, dem Burgenland und der Steiermarck, teil VI. Stapfia 92: 15-20.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist. Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Gaur, R.D. (1999). Flora of the district of Garhwal north west Himalaya: 1-811. Transmedia, Srinagar, India.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • H?, P.-H. (1993). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam 2(2): 611-1191. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
  • Hallé, N. (1980). Les Orchidees de Tubuai (archipel des Australes, Sud Polynesie), suivies d'un catalogue des plantes a fleurs et fougeres des iles Australes. Cahiers de l'Indo-Pacifique 2(3): 69-130.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae). Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition. Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Heine, H. (1976). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 7: 1-212. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hul, S. & Dy Phon, P. (2014). Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêt-Nam 35: 1-93. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Yamazaki, T., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1993). Flora of Japan IIIa: 1-482. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands. Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 1-590. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée. Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lorence, D.H. & Wagnwe, W.L. (2020). Flora of the Marquesas Islands 2: 413-1135. National Tropical Botanic Garden, Smithsonian, DRPF.
  • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh lục các loài thực vật Việt Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà Nội : Nhà xuất bản Nông nghiệp.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Memon, R.A. & al. (2014). Illustrated weed flora of Cotton crop of Khairpur district, Sindh, Pakistan. Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 5-12.
  • Merrill, E.D. (1923). An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants 3: 1-628. Bureau of Science, Manila.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Muer, T., Sauerbier, H. & Cabrara Calixto, F. (2020). Die Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Madeiras: 1-792. Verlag und Versandbuchhandlung Andreas Kleinsteuber.
  • Nasir, Y.J. (1985). Flora of Pakistan 168: 1-61. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1. Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide. Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Schäfer, H. (2021). Flora of the Azores a field guide: 1-445. Margraf Publishers GmbH.
  • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2020). Flore du Gabon 55: 1-137. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue. Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Symon, D.E. (1985). The Solanaceae of New Guinea. Journal of the Adelaide botanic gardens 8: 1-171.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • de Salas, MF, Baker, ML (2022). A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania, including Macquarie Island: 1-161. Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart. https://flora.tmag.tas.gov.au/resources/census/.
  • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2021). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 13. Willdenowia 51: 141-168.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Baldwin & Speese in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 78, 3: 255, 257 (1951)
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 248
  • Sp. Pl. ed. 2, 1670 (1763)

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Florez-Cárdenas, G., Núñez-Izquierdo, O. L., Núñez-Izquierdo, M. M., Ramírez-Mesa, M., & Zusunaga-Quintana, J. A. (2010). 100 Plantas útiles del páramo del Rabanal: Guía para comunidades rurales. Bogotá: Instituto Alexander von Humboldt - CAR - Corpoboyac
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Lagos-López, M. (2007). Estudio etnobotánico de especies vegetales con propiedades medicinales en seis municipios de Boyacá, Colombia. Actualidades Biológicas, 29(86), 87-96.
  • Romero Castañeda, R. (1961). Plantas útiles de Colombia. Volumen I. San Juan Eudes, Bogotá.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 440 (1852).
  • Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl., ed. 2: 244 (1994).
  • Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 77: 42 (1973).
  • Binns, First Check List Herb. Fl. Malawi: 98 (1968).
  • Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 78, 3: 254–257 (1951).
  • Common Rhod. Weeds: fig. 87 (1955).
  • De Wildeman & Staner, Contr. Fl. Katanga: 182 (1921).
  • De Wildeman, Pl. Bequaert. 1: 412 (1922).
  • F.C. 4, 2: 106 (1904)
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 248 (1906).
  • Fanshawe, For. Res. Bull. 22: 33 (1973).
  • Fl. Cabo Verde, fam. 71: 37 (2002).
  • Garcia de Orta 17: 279 (1969).
  • Ivens, East Afr. Weeds: 218, fig. 108 (1967).
  • J. Williamson, Useful Pl. Nyasaland: 97 (1956).
  • Kirkia 1: 62 (1961).
  • Marloth, Fl. S. Africa 3, 1: 117 (1932).
  • Merxmüller, Prodr. Fl. SW. Afrika, fam. 124: 9 (1969).
  • Moriarty, Wild Fl. Malawi: 81, t. 82.4 (1975).
  • Rhodora 69: 113 (1967).
  • Ross, Fl. Natal: 308 (1972).
  • Sp. Pl., ed. 2: 1670 (1763).
  • T. & H. Durand, Syll. Fl. Congol.: 395 (1909).
  • Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk, Med. & Pois. Pl. S. & E. Africa, ed. 2: 989 (1962).
  • Wild, S. Rhod. Bot. Dict.: 112 (1953)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
  • Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. in Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R. C. (1965). Flora of Java 2: 1-641. N.V.P. Noordhoff, Groningen, The Netherlands.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis. PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
  • Castroviejo, S. (ed.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Iberica 11: 1-672. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
  • Craib, W.G. (1954). Florae Siamensis enumeratio 3(2): 1-81. Siam society, Bangkok, Thailand.
  • D'Arcy, W.G. & Rakotozafy, A. (1994). Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 176: 1-146. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist. Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae. Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Gaur, R.D. (1999). Flora of the district of Garhwal north west Himalaya: 1-811. Transmedia, Srinagar, India.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • H?, P.-H. (1993). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam 2(2): 611-1191. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
  • Hallé, N. (1980). Les Orchidees de Tubuai (archipel des Australes, Sud Polynesie), suivies d'un catalogue des plantes a fleurs et fougeres des iles Australes. Cahiers de l'Indo-Pacifique 2(3): 69-130.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae). Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition. Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Heine, H. (1976). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 7: 1-212. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands. Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 1-590. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée. Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lorence, D.H. & Wagnwe, W.L. (2020). Flora of the Marquesas Islands 2: 413-1135. National Tropical Botanic Garden, Smithsonian, DRPF.
  • Merrill, E.D. (1923). An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants 3: 1-628. Bureau of Science, Manila.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Mouterde, P. (1983). Nouvelle flore du Liban se de la Syrie 3: 1-578. Dar El-Machreq Sarl, Beyrouth, Liban.
  • Nasir, Y.J. (1985). Flora of Pakistan 168: 1-61. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide. Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2020). Flore du Gabon 55: 1-137. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • St. John, H. (1988). Census of the Flora of the Gambier islands, Polynesia. Pacific Plant Studies 43: 1-34.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue. Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Symon, D.E. (1985). The Solanaceae of New Guinea. Journal of the Adelaide botanic gardens 8: 1-171.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
  • Verloove, F. (2019). Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium http://alienplantsbelgium.be.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2021). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 13. Willdenowia 51: 141-168.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 440 (1852)
  • Durand & Durand, Syll. Fl. Cong.: 395 (1909);
  • E.P.A. 2: 859 (1963);
  • F.P.N.A. 2: 205 (1947), as P. pubescens;
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 248 (1906);
  • F.W.T.A. 2nd ed., 2: 329 (1963);
  • F.Z. 8(4): 47 (2005);
  • Fl. Cap. 4(1): 106 (1904);
  • Fl. Egypt 6: 67 (1998);
  • Fl. Eth. 5: 153 (2006).
  • Fl. Somalia 3: 202 (2006);
  • Lamarck, Encycl. Méth. Bot. 2: 101 (1786)
  • Rhodora 69: 141 (1958);
  • Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 1670 (1763)
  • U.K.W.F. 2nd ed.: 244 (1994);
  • U.O.P.Z.: 411 (1949);
  • W.F.K.: 90 (1948)

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Garcia, H. (1992). Flora Medicinal de Colombia. Botánica Médica. Segunda Edición. Tercer Mundo Editores. Tomo III.
  • García Castro, N. J. (2011). Plantas nativas empleadas en alimentación en Colombia. Instituo de Investigaciones Biológicas Alexander von Humboldt. http://repository.humboldt.org.co/handle/20.500.11761/31275
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • Plants for malaria, plants for fever: Medicinal species in Latin America, a bibliographic survey: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Aug 1, 2010 Cook, C. [107], Irian Jaya K000612218 No
Jan 1, 2008 Ekema, N. [508], Cameroon K000008827 No
Mar 1, 2005 Tchiengue, B. [1969], Cameroon K000436205 No
Oct 1, 2003 Biye, E. [113], Cameroon K000212626 No
Oct 1, 2003 Pollard, B.J. [523], Cameroon K000212627 No
Oct 1, 2003 Pollard, B.J. [645], Cameroon K000212625 No
Feb 1, 2002 Pollard, B.J. [165], Cameroon K000109668 No
Dec 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [4589], Cameroon K000339158 No
Feb 1, 2000 Zapfack, L. [783], Cameroon K000339154 No
Feb 1, 2000 Cheek, M. [8751], Cameroon K000339157 No
Feb 1, 2000 Buzgo, M. [692], Cameroon K000339155 No
Feb 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [3459], Cameroon K000339156 No
Feb 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [2209], Cameroon K000339159 No
Jan 1, 1993 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [331], Cameroon K000190191 No
Jan 1, 1991 Zarucchi, J.L. [7534], Madagascar K000489019 No
Jan 1, 1985 Thomas, D.W. [4624], Cameroon K000028669 No
Jan 1, 1976 Croat, T.B. [28474], Madagascar K000489024 No
Forster [s.n.], South Africa K000405943 Yes
Pringle, C.G. [8275], Mexico K000042191 No
Pringle, C.G. [11056], Mexico K000042192 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116695 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116697 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634], India K001116703 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 2634], Nepal K001116701 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116702 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116696 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116711 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116706 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116698 Yes
Hepper, F.N. [1966], Cameroon K000028673 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116705 Yes
Gentry, A. [11224], Madagascar K000489027 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116709 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116707 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [3431], Mexico K000042193 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116710 Yes
Hepper, F.N. [1966], Cameroon K000028674 No
Breteler, F.J. [198], Cameroon K000028668 No
Tiyoy, L.M. [1334], Uganda K000449280 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116694 Yes
Dorr, L.J. [2861], Madagascar K000489025 No
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 2634], Nepal K001116700 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116704 Yes
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116708 Yes
Brunt, M.A. [695], Cameroon K000028670 No

Sources

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  • Flora Zambesiaca

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  • Flora of Somalia

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    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

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    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

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    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Plants and People Africa

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    • © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

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    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
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    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

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    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/