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This species is accepted, and its native range is Bolivia to W. Brazil. It is used as a medicine and for food.
Physalis peruviana L.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Type
Type: Linnean specimen 247.7 (LINN, holotype, IDC microfiche neg. 137.I.4!) of a plant cultivated in the “Hortus Botanicus Upsaliensis”, Uppsala (Sweden), raised from seeds carried (or obtained) by Alströmer from Lima (Peru).
Morphology General
Erect or ascending, occasionally trailing or straggling, often ± robust and diffusely ± branched, suffruticose or herbaceous with perennial base, 0.3–2.5 m high, arising from a stout, woody, sometimes creeping rootstock, unpleasantly scented, sometimes tinged purple or mauve, ± densely clothed all over with simple, fine, multicellular, white or greyish to brownish, patent to appressed, often long, usually eglandular hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicel (5)6–18 mm long, densely clothed with ± patent hairs, in fruit elongating to 23 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2–2.5 × 1. 5–2 mm, ovoid or ± globose, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style purple, 6–8 mm long, filiform, straight or slightly curved upwards
Note
Chromosome number: 2n=48 Cultivated mainly for its edible fruits, often occurring as an escape or as a weed of cultivation and in disturbed ground. Common name: “Cape Gooseberry”.
Distribution
BOT SE, ZAM N, ZAM W, ZAM C, ZAM S, ZIM N, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ T, MOZ MS, MOZ M Native to tropical South America, now widely naturalized in the tropics and subtropics. Malawi Mozambique Zambia Zimbabwe Botswana.
Morphology General Habit
Erect or ascending, occasionally trailing or straggling, often ± robust and diffusely ± branched, suffruticose or herbaceous with perennial base, 0.3–2.5 m high, arising from a stout, woody, sometimes creeping rootstock, unpleasantly scented, sometimes tinged purple or mauve, ± densely clothed all over with simple, fine, multicellular, white or greyish to brownish, patent to appressed, often long, usually eglandular hairs.
Morphology Branches
Branches obsoletely angular to angular-ribbed, striate, drying sulcate. Branches obsoletely angular to angular-ribbed, striate, drying sulcate
Morphology Leaves
Leaves solitary or geminate; petiole 0.5–5.5 cm long, rather sheathing at the base; lamina membranous or papyraceous, (2)3–16 × (1.5)2–11 cm, ovate-cordiform or ovate, often broadly so, occasionally subrotund, ± deltate or rhombic, base ± cordate to broadly cuneate, sometimes rounded or truncate, and often oblique or unequal-sided, apex acuminate or acute, ± entire to coarsely sinuate-dentate or dentate, the few teeth unequal, ± triangular, obtuse or acute, the sinuses rounded, ± densely clothed with somewhat appressed hairs, more abundant beneath and along the nerves and margins, densely ciliate. Leaves solitary or geminate; petiole 0.5–5.5 cm long, rather sheathing at the base; lamina membranous or papyraceous, (2)3–16 × (1. 5)2–11 cm, ovate-cordiform or ovate, often broadly so, occasionally subrotund, ± deltate or rhombic, base ± cordate to broadly cuneate, sometimes rounded or truncate, and often oblique or unequal-sided, apex acuminate or acute, ± entire to coarsely sinuate-dentate or dentate, the few teeth unequal, ± triangular, obtuse or acute, the sinuses rounded, ± densely clothed with somewhat appressed hairs, more abundant beneath and along the nerves and margins, densely ciliate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, axillary, erect to nodding; pedicel (5)6–18 mm long, densely clothed with ± patent hairs, in fruit elongating to 23 mm. Flowers solitary, axillary, erect to nodding.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 6–9(10) mm long, 4–6(7) mm across at the base of the lobes, cylindric to campanulate, sub-angled, truncate or invaginated at the base, densely villous, on the inside glabrous except for the lobes with ± dense, short indumentum towards the apex, near the margins and along the midrib; lobes subequal or unequal, 4–6 × 2–4.5 mm, ovate-triangular to lanceolate, acute or acuminate; in fruit dark yellow when ripe, sometimes with purplish base and venation, 30–40(50) × (20)25–30 mm, ovoid, 10-ribbed or slightly 10-angled, acuminate, half filled by the fruit, persistently hairy, the lobes up to 7–10 × 4–7 mm. Calyx 6–9(10) mm long, 4–6(7) mm across at the base of the lobes, cylindric to campanulate, sub-angled, truncate or invaginated at the base, densely villous, on the inside glabrous except for the lobes with ± dense, short indumentum towards the apex, near the margins and along the midrib; lobes subequal or unequal, 4–6 × 2–4.5 mm, ovate-triangular to lanceolate, acute or acuminate; in fruit dark yellow when ripe, sometimes with purplish base and venation, 30–40(50) × (20)25–30 mm, ovoid, 10-ribbed or slightly 10-angled, acuminate, half filled by the fruit, persistently hairy, the lobes up to 7–10 × 4–7 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla pale yellow or yellow, blotched with 5 ± dark violet, purplish or brownish markings strongly contrasting with the surrounding limb, sometimes continued by veins along the lobes, (9)10–15 mm long, sub-campanulate-rotate or campanulate, occasionally infundibular; tube subglabrous, on the inside with dense felted indumentum from near the insertion of the stamens to the mouth; limb (10)12–19(20) mm across, sublobed, widely spreading, on the outside with sparse, relatively long hairs on the parts not folded in bud, more dense and short at the apex and near the margins of the lobes, glabrous or subglabrous inside, densely ciliate. Corolla pale yellow or yellow, blotched with 5 ± dark violet, purplish or brownish markings strongly contrasting with the surrounding limb, sometimes continued by veins along the lobes, (9)10–15 mm long, sub-campanulate-rotate or campanulate, occasionally infundibular; tube subglabrous, on the inside with dense felted indumentum from near the insertion of the stamens to the mouth; limb (10)12–19(20) mm across, sublobed, widely spreading, on the outside with sparse, relatively long hairs on the parts not folded in bud, more dense and short at the apex and near the margins of the lobes, glabrous or subglabrous inside, densely ciliate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens included or slightly exserted, subequal; filaments purple, (2)3–4(4.5) mm long, filiform, attached to the corolla tube near the base, furnished with a few hairs; anthers bluish to purple-red, 3–4 mm long, oblong in outline, straight after anthesis. Stamens included or slightly exserted, subequal; filaments purple, (2)3–4(4.5) mm long, filiform, attached to the corolla tube near the base, furnished with a few hairs; anthers bluish to purple-red, 3–4 mm long, oblong in outline, straight after anthesis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk 0.3–0.4 mm high, fleshy, glabrous. Disk 0.3–0.4 mm high, fleshy, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 2–2.5 × 1.5–2 mm, ovoid or ± globose, glabrous; style purple, 6–8 mm long, filiform, straight or slightly curved upwards.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit green turning golden or yellow to orange when ripe, subsessile or with a gynobase up to c. 0.8 mm long on the invaginated base of the erect to pendulous calyx, 11–20 × 10–15 mm, ovoid, ellipsoid or ± globose. Fruit green turning golden or yellow to orange when ripe, subsessile or with a gynobase up to c.  0.8 mm long on the invaginated base of the erect to pendulous calyx, 11–20 × 10–15 mm, ovoid, ellipsoid or ± globose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds brownish, 2 × 1.5–1.8 mm, ovate to orbicular in outline, sometimes reniform, reticulate-foveate all over. Seeds brownish, 2 × 1. 5–1. 8 mm, ovate to orbicular in outline, sometimes reniform, reticulate-foveate all over
Cytology
Chromosome number: 2n=48.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 1300 - 3700 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Distribution
Native and cultivated in Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.

[FWTA]

Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Erect perennial up to 3 ft. high, densely hairy, from a creeping rootstock.

[UNAL]
Vernacular
Alquenque, Bolsa de amor, Buchuba, Buchuva, Capulí, Guchero, Guchuba, Guchubo, Herbbuena, Huevo de sapo, Tomate, Topo-topo, Uchuba, Uchubo, Uchuva

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Vernacular
Cape gooseberry (English).
Morphology General Habit
Perennial shrubby herb, up to c. 2 m tall, densely pubescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate; blade broadly ovate, 5–15 x 3–10 cm, cordate to truncate at the base, acuminate at the apex, with entire or slightly dentate margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels up to c. 1.5 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 7–9 mm long in flower, up to 40 mm in fruit, lobed almost halfway into acuminate lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow with purple markings in throat, 1.5–2.5 cm in diam. Berry 1–2 cm in diam., yellow
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 2 mm in diam., yellowish.
Distribution
N2 native to South America, widely cultivated elsewhere.
Ecology
Altitude c. 1300 m.
Note
First record for Somalia.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa y cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1300 - 3700 m.; Andes, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, subarbusto
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: cultivated Hort. Uppsala, “Habitat Limae”. Alstoemer, Herb. Linnaeus 247.7 (LINN!, lecto.) designated by Fernandes in Garcia de Orta, 17(3): 8 (1969) [and not lectotype selected by Heine in Aubrevillé & Leroy, Fl. Nouv-Caled., 7: 132 (1976 cited as 1975) fide Jarvis, Order out of Chaos: 742 (2007)]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs to 1.6 m high, sometimes annual, occasionally shrubby and woody basally.
Morphology Stem
Main stems prostrate to erect and spreading, usually muchbranched, sometimes straggling or trailing, with thick woody tap root; stems light to brownish-green, sometimes angular; all vegetative parts densely villous/pubescent, often appearing light brownish yellow
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, occasionally opposite, usually membranaceous, green to greyish-green, ovate to broadly ovate, 4.5–7(–11) × 3–5.5(–8) cm, bases cordate to sub-cordate, often oblique, margins entire to sinuate, sometimes sinuate-dentate with few shallow obtuse to acute lobes, apices acuminate to acute, pubescent, denser on veins, midribs and lower surfaces; petioles 1.2–5.2 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, axillary; pedicels 6–12 mm and erect, rarely curved apically, 7–16 mm long and usually recurved in fruit, villous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx light green, cupulate to campanulate, 5–10 mm long with five triangular acute lobes 3.5–6 × 1.3–3 mm, villous externally, enlarged and persistent in fruit, with lobes 5–10 × 2–5.5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow or greenish-yellow with black, grey, brown, crimson or purple dark basal spots or blotches and an internal ring of yellowish hairs in throat below anthers, broadly campanulate, 1–1.6 cm long and 0.9–1.9 cm diameter, shortly pubescent externally, margin undulating, ciliate and entire or with five broadly triangular obtuse lobes 0.7–2 × to 3 mm. Stamens often unequal, exserted; filaments free for 2.5–5 mm; anthers usually equal and tinged purple, oblong, bilobed, 3–3.8 × 1–1.7 mm, always exposed in throat of corolla
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary smooth, brownish, 1.5–2 × 1.7–3 mm, ovoid, glabrous; disc 0.7–1 × 2.1–3.5 mm; style often exserted, 4.5–7 mm long; stigma 0.3–0.8 mm diameter, often shallowly bilobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a smooth greenish berry maturing to yellow, orange or red, globose or ovoid, 8–15 mm diameter, enclosed by enlarged and inflated pubescent, chartaceous, greenish-yellow, reticulately- and often purple-veined bladder-like urceolate 5–10-angled calyx, 3–4.4 × 2–3.5 cm, the mouth closed by connivent calyx lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds yellowish to brownish, orbicular to elliptic, 1.6–2 × 1.2–1.7 mm, compressed
Figures
Fig 15/16–23, p 72
Ecology
Naturalised and often common weed of shambas, waste and disturbed places, fallow land, plantation areas, river-banks, secondary bushland, forest margins and clearings; 900–2500 m
Conservation
Widespread; least concern (LC)
Note
Commonly known as the Cape Gooseberry (derived from its introduction from the Cape, where it became widely naturalised), ground cherry or jam berry, this species is now cultivated for its fruits throughout the world. In East Africa the fruits are widely eaten and sold in markets. It is also used as a herbal medicine by midwives in U 2.
Distribution
Flora districts: U1 U2 U4 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Range: Native to South America but introduced throughout the world to warm and temperate regions, including throughout Africa from Sierre Leone to Ethiopia and S to South Africa Range: Often locally naturalised

[UPB]
Use Food
Food (Romero Castañeda 1961, State of the World's Plants 2016). Infructescences - Used to make juices (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010). Infructescences - Edible fruit (Romero Castañeda 1961, Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010). Infructescences - Used in sweet dishes (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010). Infructescences - Used to prepare jelly (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Endocrine System Disorders
Used in the treatment of diabetes (Toscano-González 2006).
Use Medicines Genitourinary System Disorders
Exudates - Used in liquid medicines (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Ill-Defined Symptoms
Exudates - Used in liquid medicines (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Mental Disorders
Exudates - Used in liquid medicines (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Nervous System Disorders
Exudates - Used in topical medications in the treatment of facial paralysis (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Sensory System Disorders
Infructescences - Used in liquid medicines in the treatment of conjunctivitis (Lagos-López 2007, Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010). Infructescences - Used in liquid medicines to prevent cataracts (Lagos-López 2007). Exudates - Used in liquid medicines to treat the eyes (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil West-Central

Introduced into:

Angola, Ascension, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bermuda, Botswana, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Bulgaria, Burundi, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chile Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Free State, Galápagos, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Great Britain, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Hungary, India, Italy, Jamaica, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kazan-retto, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Palestine, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Somalia, South Australia, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tristan da Cunha, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Venezuela, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Chinese gooseberry
Spanish
Uchuva, guchuvo, tomate, uchuvo, uvilla, vejigón, buchuba, uchubo, capulí, bolsa de amor, alquenque, buchuva, guchuba, guchero, topo-topo, huevo de sapo.

Physalis peruviana L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Aug 1, 2010 Cook, C. [107], Irian Jaya K000612218
Jan 1, 2008 Ekema, N. [508], Cameroon K000008827
Mar 1, 2005 Tchiengue, B. [1969], Cameroon K000436205
Oct 1, 2003 Biye, E. [113], Cameroon K000212626
Oct 1, 2003 Pollard, B.J. [523], Cameroon K000212627
Oct 1, 2003 Pollard, B.J. [645], Cameroon K000212625
Feb 1, 2002 Pollard, B.J. [165], Cameroon K000109668
Dec 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [4589], Cameroon K000339158
Feb 1, 2000 Zapfack, L. [783], Cameroon K000339154
Feb 1, 2000 Cheek, M. [8751], Cameroon K000339157
Feb 1, 2000 Buzgo, M. [692], Cameroon K000339155
Feb 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [3459], Cameroon K000339156
Feb 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [2209], Cameroon K000339159
Jan 1, 1993 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [331], Cameroon K000190191
Jan 1, 1991 Zarucchi, J.L. [7534], Madagascar K000489019
Jan 1, 1985 Thomas, D.W. [4624], Cameroon K000028669
Jan 1, 1976 Croat, T.B. [28474], Madagascar K000489024
Forster [s.n.], South Africa K000405943
Pringle, C.G. [8275], Mexico K000042191
Pringle, C.G. [11056], Mexico K000042192
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116695
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116697
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634], India K001116703
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 2634], Nepal K001116701
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116702
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116696
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116711
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116706
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116698
Hepper, F.N. [1966], Cameroon K000028673
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116705
Gentry, A. [11224], Madagascar K000489027
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116709
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116707
Hinton, G.B. [3431], Mexico K000042193
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116710
Hepper, F.N. [1966], Cameroon K000028674
Breteler, F.J. [198], Cameroon K000028668
Tiyoy, L.M. [1334], Uganda K000449280
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116694
Dorr, L.J. [2861], Madagascar K000489025
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 2634], Nepal K001116700
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116704
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 2634] K001116708
Brunt, M.A. [695], Cameroon K000028670

First published in Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 1670 (1763)

Accepted by

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  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 1-590. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lorence, D.H. & Wagnwe, W.L. (2020). Flora of the Marquesas Islands 2: 413-1135. National Tropical Botanic Garden, Smithsonian, DRPF.
  • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Memon, R.A. & al. (2014). Illustrated weed flora of Cotton crop of Khairpur district, Sindh, Pakistan Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 5-12.
  • Merrill, E.D. (1923). An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants 3: 1-628. Bureau of Science, Manila.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nasir, Y.J. (1985). Flora of Pakistan 168: 1-61. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Symon, D.E. (1985). The Solanaceae of New Guinea Journal of the Adelaide botanic gardens 8: 1-171.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2021). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 13 Willdenowia 51: 141-168.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Baldwin & Speese in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 78, 3: 255, 257 (1951)
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 248
  • Sp. Pl. ed. 2, 1670 (1763)

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Florez-Cárdenas, G., Núñez-Izquierdo, O. L., Núñez-Izquierdo, M. M., Ramírez-Mesa, M., & Zusunaga-Quintana, J. A. (2010). 100 Plantas útiles del páramo del Rabanal: Guía para comunidades rurales. Bogotá: Instituto Alexander von Humboldt - CAR - Corpoboyac
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Lagos-López, M. (2007). Estudio etnobotánico de especies vegetales con propiedades medicinales en seis municipios de Boyacá, Colombia. Actualidades Biológicas, 29(86), 87-96.
  • Romero Castañeda, R. (1961). Plantas útiles de Colombia. Volumen I. San Juan Eudes, Bogotá.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 440 (1852).
  • Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl., ed. 2: 244 (1994).
  • Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 77: 42 (1973).
  • Binns, First Check List Herb. Fl. Malawi: 98 (1968).
  • Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 78, 3: 254–257 (1951).
  • Common Rhod. Weeds: fig. 87 (1955).
  • De Wildeman & Staner, Contr. Fl. Katanga: 182 (1921).
  • De Wildeman, Pl. Bequaert. 1: 412 (1922).
  • F.C. 4, 2: 106 (1904)
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 248 (1906).
  • Fanshawe, For. Res. Bull. 22: 33 (1973).
  • Fl. Cabo Verde, fam. 71: 37 (2002).
  • Garcia de Orta 17: 279 (1969).
  • Ivens, East Afr. Weeds: 218, fig. 108 (1967).
  • J. Williamson, Useful Pl. Nyasaland: 97 (1956).
  • Kirkia 1: 62 (1961).
  • Marloth, Fl. S. Africa 3, 1: 117 (1932).
  • Merxmüller, Prodr. Fl. SW. Afrika, fam. 124: 9 (1969).
  • Moriarty, Wild Fl. Malawi: 81, t. 82.4 (1975).
  • Rhodora 69: 113 (1967).
  • Ross, Fl. Natal: 308 (1972).
  • Sp. Pl., ed. 2: 1670 (1763).
  • T. & H. Durand, Syll. Fl. Congol.: 395 (1909).
  • Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk, Med. & Pois. Pl. S. & E. Africa, ed. 2: 989 (1962).
  • Wild, S. Rhod. Bot. Dict.: 112 (1953)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
  • Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. in Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R. C. (1965). Flora of Java 2: 1-641. N.V.P. Noordhoff, Groningen, The Netherlands.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
  • Castroviejo, S. (ed.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Iberica 11: 1-672. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
  • Craib, W.G. (1954). Florae Siamensis enumeratio 3(2): 1-81. Siam society, Bangkok, Thailand.
  • D'Arcy, W.G. & Rakotozafy, A. (1994). Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 176: 1-146. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Gaur, R.D. (1999). Flora of the district of Garhwal north west Himalaya: 1-811. Transmedia, Srinagar, India.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • H?, P.-H. (1993). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam 2(2): 611-1191. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
  • Hallé, N. (1980). Les Orchidees de Tubuai (archipel des Australes, Sud Polynesie), suivies d'un catalogue des plantes a fleurs et fougeres des iles Australes Cahiers de l'Indo-Pacifique 2(3): 69-130.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Heine, H. (1976). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 7: 1-212. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 1-590. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lorence, D.H. & Wagnwe, W.L. (2020). Flora of the Marquesas Islands 2: 413-1135. National Tropical Botanic Garden, Smithsonian, DRPF.
  • Merrill, E.D. (1923). An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants 3: 1-628. Bureau of Science, Manila.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Mouterde, P. (1983). Nouvelle flore du Liban se de la Syrie 3: 1-578. Dar El-Machreq Sarl, Beyrouth, Liban.
  • Nasir, Y.J. (1985). Flora of Pakistan 168: 1-61. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • St. John, H. (1988). Census of the Flora of the Gambier islands, Polynesia Pacific Plant Studies 43: 1-34.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Symon, D.E. (1985). The Solanaceae of New Guinea Journal of the Adelaide botanic gardens 8: 1-171.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
  • Verloove, F. (2019). Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium http://alienplantsbelgium.be.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2021). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 13 Willdenowia 51: 141-168.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 440 (1852)
  • Durand & Durand, Syll. Fl. Cong.: 395 (1909);
  • E.P.A. 2: 859 (1963);
  • F.P.N.A. 2: 205 (1947), as P. pubescens;
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 248 (1906);
  • F.W.T.A. 2nd ed., 2: 329 (1963);
  • F.Z. 8(4): 47 (2005);
  • Fl. Cap. 4(1): 106 (1904);
  • Fl. Egypt 6: 67 (1998);
  • Fl. Eth. 5: 153 (2006).
  • Fl. Somalia 3: 202 (2006);
  • Lamarck, Encycl. Méth. Bot. 2: 101 (1786)
  • Rhodora 69: 141 (1958);
  • Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 1670 (1763)
  • U.K.W.F. 2nd ed.: 244 (1994);
  • U.O.P.Z.: 411 (1949);
  • W.F.K.: 90 (1948)

Universidad Nacional de Colombia

  • García Castro, N. J. (2011). Plantas nativas empleadas en alimentación en Colombia. Instituo de Investigaciones Biológicas Alexander von Humboldt. http://repository.humboldt.org.co/handle/20.500.11761/31275

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
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Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/