Physalis peruviana L.

First published in Sp. Pl., ed. 2.: 1670 (1763)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Bolivia to W. Brazil. It is a perennial and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome. It is used as a poison and a medicine, has environmental uses and for food.

Descriptions

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Type
Type: Linnean specimen 247.7 (LINN, holotype, IDC microfiche neg. 137.I.4!) of a plant cultivated in the “Hortus Botanicus Upsaliensis”, Uppsala (Sweden), raised from seeds carried (or obtained) by Alströmer from Lima (Peru).
Morphology General
Erect or ascending, occasionally trailing or straggling, often ± robust and diffusely ± branched, suffruticose or herbaceous with perennial base, 0.3–2.5 m high, arising from a stout, woody, sometimes creeping rootstock, unpleasantly scented, sometimes tinged purple or mauve, ± densely clothed all over with simple, fine, multicellular, white or greyish to brownish, patent to appressed, often long, usually eglandular hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicel (5)6–18 mm long, densely clothed with ± patent hairs, in fruit elongating to 23 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2–2.5 × 1. 5–2 mm, ovoid or ± globose, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style purple, 6–8 mm long, filiform, straight or slightly curved upwards
Note
Chromosome number: 2n=48 Cultivated mainly for its edible fruits, often occurring as an escape or as a weed of cultivation and in disturbed ground. Common name: “Cape Gooseberry”.
Distribution
BOT SE, ZAM N, ZAM W, ZAM C, ZAM S, ZIM N, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ T, MOZ MS, MOZ M Native to tropical South America, now widely naturalized in the tropics and subtropics. Malawi Mozambique Zambia Zimbabwe Botswana.
Morphology General Habit
Erect or ascending, occasionally trailing or straggling, often ± robust and diffusely ± branched, suffruticose or herbaceous with perennial base, 0.3–2.5 m high, arising from a stout, woody, sometimes creeping rootstock, unpleasantly scented, sometimes tinged purple or mauve, ± densely clothed all over with simple, fine, multicellular, white or greyish to brownish, patent to appressed, often long, usually eglandular hairs.
Morphology Branches
Branches obsoletely angular to angular-ribbed, striate, drying sulcate. Branches obsoletely angular to angular-ribbed, striate, drying sulcate
Morphology Leaves
Leaves solitary or geminate; petiole 0.5–5.5 cm long, rather sheathing at the base; lamina membranous or papyraceous, (2)3–16 × (1.5)2–11 cm, ovate-cordiform or ovate, often broadly so, occasionally subrotund, ± deltate or rhombic, base ± cordate to broadly cuneate, sometimes rounded or truncate, and often oblique or unequal-sided, apex acuminate or acute, ± entire to coarsely sinuate-dentate or dentate, the few teeth unequal, ± triangular, obtuse or acute, the sinuses rounded, ± densely clothed with somewhat appressed hairs, more abundant beneath and along the nerves and margins, densely ciliate. Leaves solitary or geminate; petiole 0.5–5.5 cm long, rather sheathing at the base; lamina membranous or papyraceous, (2)3–16 × (1. 5)2–11 cm, ovate-cordiform or ovate, often broadly so, occasionally subrotund, ± deltate or rhombic, base ± cordate to broadly cuneate, sometimes rounded or truncate, and often oblique or unequal-sided, apex acuminate or acute, ± entire to coarsely sinuate-dentate or dentate, the few teeth unequal, ± triangular, obtuse or acute, the sinuses rounded, ± densely clothed with somewhat appressed hairs, more abundant beneath and along the nerves and margins, densely ciliate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, axillary, erect to nodding; pedicel (5)6–18 mm long, densely clothed with ± patent hairs, in fruit elongating to 23 mm. Flowers solitary, axillary, erect to nodding.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 6–9(10) mm long, 4–6(7) mm across at the base of the lobes, cylindric to campanulate, sub-angled, truncate or invaginated at the base, densely villous, on the inside glabrous except for the lobes with ± dense, short indumentum towards the apex, near the margins and along the midrib; lobes subequal or unequal, 4–6 × 2–4.5 mm, ovate-triangular to lanceolate, acute or acuminate; in fruit dark yellow when ripe, sometimes with purplish base and venation, 30–40(50) × (20)25–30 mm, ovoid, 10-ribbed or slightly 10-angled, acuminate, half filled by the fruit, persistently hairy, the lobes up to 7–10 × 4–7 mm. Calyx 6–9(10) mm long, 4–6(7) mm across at the base of the lobes, cylindric to campanulate, sub-angled, truncate or invaginated at the base, densely villous, on the inside glabrous except for the lobes with ± dense, short indumentum towards the apex, near the margins and along the midrib; lobes subequal or unequal, 4–6 × 2–4.5 mm, ovate-triangular to lanceolate, acute or acuminate; in fruit dark yellow when ripe, sometimes with purplish base and venation, 30–40(50) × (20)25–30 mm, ovoid, 10-ribbed or slightly 10-angled, acuminate, half filled by the fruit, persistently hairy, the lobes up to 7–10 × 4–7 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla pale yellow or yellow, blotched with 5 ± dark violet, purplish or brownish markings strongly contrasting with the surrounding limb, sometimes continued by veins along the lobes, (9)10–15 mm long, sub-campanulate-rotate or campanulate, occasionally infundibular; tube subglabrous, on the inside with dense felted indumentum from near the insertion of the stamens to the mouth; limb (10)12–19(20) mm across, sublobed, widely spreading, on the outside with sparse, relatively long hairs on the parts not folded in bud, more dense and short at the apex and near the margins of the lobes, glabrous or subglabrous inside, densely ciliate. Corolla pale yellow or yellow, blotched with 5 ± dark violet, purplish or brownish markings strongly contrasting with the surrounding limb, sometimes continued by veins along the lobes, (9)10–15 mm long, sub-campanulate-rotate or campanulate, occasionally infundibular; tube subglabrous, on the inside with dense felted indumentum from near the insertion of the stamens to the mouth; limb (10)12–19(20) mm across, sublobed, widely spreading, on the outside with sparse, relatively long hairs on the parts not folded in bud, more dense and short at the apex and near the margins of the lobes, glabrous or subglabrous inside, densely ciliate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens included or slightly exserted, subequal; filaments purple, (2)3–4(4.5) mm long, filiform, attached to the corolla tube near the base, furnished with a few hairs; anthers bluish to purple-red, 3–4 mm long, oblong in outline, straight after anthesis. Stamens included or slightly exserted, subequal; filaments purple, (2)3–4(4.5) mm long, filiform, attached to the corolla tube near the base, furnished with a few hairs; anthers bluish to purple-red, 3–4 mm long, oblong in outline, straight after anthesis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk 0.3–0.4 mm high, fleshy, glabrous. Disk 0.3–0.4 mm high, fleshy, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 2–2.5 × 1.5–2 mm, ovoid or ± globose, glabrous; style purple, 6–8 mm long, filiform, straight or slightly curved upwards.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit green turning golden or yellow to orange when ripe, subsessile or with a gynobase up to c. 0.8 mm long on the invaginated base of the erect to pendulous calyx, 11–20 × 10–15 mm, ovoid, ellipsoid or ± globose. Fruit green turning golden or yellow to orange when ripe, subsessile or with a gynobase up to c.  0.8 mm long on the invaginated base of the erect to pendulous calyx, 11–20 × 10–15 mm, ovoid, ellipsoid or ± globose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds brownish, 2 × 1.5–1.8 mm, ovate to orbicular in outline, sometimes reniform, reticulate-foveate all over. Seeds brownish, 2 × 1. 5–1. 8 mm, ovate to orbicular in outline, sometimes reniform, reticulate-foveate all over
Cytology
Chromosome number: 2n=48.
[FZ]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 1300 - 3700 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Distribution
Native and cultivated in Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
[UPB]

Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Erect perennial up to 3 ft. high, densely hairy, from a creeping rootstock.
[FWTA]

Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Elevation range: 1300–3700 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bogotá DC, Boyacá, Cesar, Huila, Magdalena, Putumayo, Quindío, Tolima.
Habit
Herb, Subshrub.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, shrubland, native grassland, desert, artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Alquenque, Bolsa de amor, Buchuba, Buchuva, Capulí, Guchero, Guchuba, Guchubo, Herbbuena, Huevo de sapo, Tomate, Topo-topo, Uchuba, Uchubo, Uchuva
[UPFC]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
chamico, guchuvo, hierbabuena, ochuva, tomate, uchuva, uchuvo, uvilla, uvilla buchona, vejigón
[UNAL]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Vernacular
Cape gooseberry (English).
Morphology General Habit
Perennial shrubby herb, up to c. 2 m tall, densely pubescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate; blade broadly ovate, 5–15 x 3–10 cm, cordate to truncate at the base, acuminate at the apex, with entire or slightly dentate margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels up to c. 1.5 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 7–9 mm long in flower, up to 40 mm in fruit, lobed almost halfway into acuminate lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow with purple markings in throat, 1.5–2.5 cm in diam. Berry 1–2 cm in diam., yellow
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 2 mm in diam., yellowish.
Distribution
N2 native to South America, widely cultivated elsewhere.
Ecology
Altitude c. 1300 m.
Note
First record for Somalia.
[FSOM]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa y cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1300 - 3700 m.; Andes, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, subarbusto
Conservation
No Evaluada
[CPLC]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: cultivated Hort. Uppsala, “Habitat Limae”. Alstoemer, Herb. Linnaeus 247.7 (LINN!, lecto.) designated by Fernandes in Garcia de Orta, 17(3): 8 (1969) [and not lectotype selected by Heine in Aubrevillé & Leroy, Fl. Nouv-Caled., 7: 132 (1976 cited as 1975) fide Jarvis, Order out of Chaos: 742 (2007)]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs to 1.6 m high, sometimes annual, occasionally shrubby and woody basally.
Morphology Stem
Main stems prostrate to erect and spreading, usually muchbranched, sometimes straggling or trailing, with thick woody tap root; stems light to brownish-green, sometimes angular; all vegetative parts densely villous/pubescent, often appearing light brownish yellow
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, occasionally opposite, usually membranaceous, green to greyish-green, ovate to broadly ovate, 4.5–7(–11) × 3–5.5(–8) cm, bases cordate to sub-cordate, often oblique, margins entire to sinuate, sometimes sinuate-dentate with few shallow obtuse to acute lobes, apices acuminate to acute, pubescent, denser on veins, midribs and lower surfaces; petioles 1.2–5.2 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, axillary; pedicels 6–12 mm and erect, rarely curved apically, 7–16 mm long and usually recurved in fruit, villous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx light green, cupulate to campanulate, 5–10 mm long with five triangular acute lobes 3.5–6 × 1.3–3 mm, villous externally, enlarged and persistent in fruit, with lobes 5–10 × 2–5.5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow or greenish-yellow with black, grey, brown, crimson or purple dark basal spots or blotches and an internal ring of yellowish hairs in throat below anthers, broadly campanulate, 1–1.6 cm long and 0.9–1.9 cm diameter, shortly pubescent externally, margin undulating, ciliate and entire or with five broadly triangular obtuse lobes 0.7–2 × to 3 mm. Stamens often unequal, exserted; filaments free for 2.5–5 mm; anthers usually equal and tinged purple, oblong, bilobed, 3–3.8 × 1–1.7 mm, always exposed in throat of corolla
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary smooth, brownish, 1.5–2 × 1.7–3 mm, ovoid, glabrous; disc 0.7–1 × 2.1–3.5 mm; style often exserted, 4.5–7 mm long; stigma 0.3–0.8 mm diameter, often shallowly bilobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a smooth greenish berry maturing to yellow, orange or red, globose or ovoid, 8–15 mm diameter, enclosed by enlarged and inflated pubescent, chartaceous, greenish-yellow, reticulately- and often purple-veined bladder-like urceolate 5–10-angled calyx, 3–4.4 × 2–3.5 cm, the mouth closed by connivent calyx lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds yellowish to brownish, orbicular to elliptic, 1.6–2 × 1.2–1.7 mm, compressed
Figures
Fig 15/16–23, p 72
Ecology
Naturalised and often common weed of shambas, waste and disturbed places, fallow land, plantation areas, river-banks, secondary bushland, forest margins and clearings; 900–2500 m
Conservation
Widespread; least concern (LC)
Note
Commonly known as the Cape Gooseberry (derived from its introduction from the Cape, where it became widely naturalised), ground cherry or jam berry, this species is now cultivated for its fruits throughout the world. In East Africa the fruits are widely eaten and sold in markets. It is also used as a herbal medicine by midwives in U 2.
Distribution
Flora districts: U1 U2 U4 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Range: Native to South America but introduced throughout the world to warm and temperate regions, including throughout Africa from Sierre Leone to Ethiopia and S to South Africa Range: Often locally naturalised
[FTEA]

Extinction risk predictions for the world's flowering plants to support their conservation (2024). Bachman, S.P., Brown, M.J.M., Leão, T.C.C., Lughadha, E.N., Walker, B.E. https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nph.19592

Conservation
Predicted extinction risk: not threatened. Confidence: confident
[AERP]

Uses

Use Food
Food (Romero Castañeda 1961, State of the World's Plants 2016). Infructescences - Edible fruit (Romero Castañeda 1961, Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010). Infructescences - Used in sweet dishes (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010). Infructescences - Used to make juices (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010). Infructescences - Used to prepare jelly (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Endocrine System Disorders
Used in the treatment of diabetes (Toscano-González 2006).
Use Medicines Genitourinary System Disorders
Exudates - Used in liquid medicines (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Ill-Defined Symptoms
Exudates - Used in liquid medicines (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Mental Disorders
Exudates - Used in liquid medicines (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Nervous System Disorders
Exudates - Used in topical medications in the treatment of facial paralysis (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Sensory System Disorders
Infructescences - Used in liquid medicines to prevent cataracts (Lagos-López 2007). Exudates - Used in liquid medicines to treat the eyes (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010). Infructescences - Used in liquid medicines in the treatment of conjunctivitis (Lagos-López 2007, Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).
[UPB]

Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
[UPFC]

Common Names

English
Chinese gooseberry
Spanish
Uchuva, guchuvo, tomate, uchuvo, uvilla, vejigón, buchuba, uchubo, capulí, bolsa de amor, alquenque, buchuva, guchuba, guchero, topo-topo, huevo de sapo.

Sources

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    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
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    • Copyright applied to individual images
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