Echinops spinosissimus Turra

First published in Farsetia: 13 (1765)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is E. Medit. to W. Iran and Arabian Peninsula. It is a perennial and grows primarily in the temperate biome.


Ghazanfar, S. A., Edmondson, J. R. & Hind, D. J. N. (Eds). (2019). Flora of Iraq, Volume 6: Compositae.Kew Publishing

Morphology General Habit
Plant 0.5–1.5(–2) m tall
Morphology Stem
Stems rarely simple, usually branched above, stout, angular- sulcate, densely white-tomentose to floccose or glabrescent, thinly to ± densely clad with unequal, multicellular glandular hairs
Morphology Leaves
Basal and lowest cauline leaves shortly petiolate, elliptic to lanceolate or oblong-elliptic in outline, up to 30 × 15 cm, 2–3-pinnatisect with up to 8 pairs of pinnae (often with further pairs ± reduced to spines below this); pinnulesnarrowly triangular with strong to rather weak terminal and lateral spines, margins recurved; median cauline leaves sessile with rounded, strongly spinose auricles, otherwise similar; upper leaves reducing and finally bract-like, strongly spinous; all leaves green and densely clothed on upper surface with unequal multicellular glandular hairs, lower surface white- tomentose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Synflorescence
Synflorescences 2.5–7(–10) cm in diameter, cornigerous or not; receptacle 4–7 mm; involucre 15–35 (–40) mm in flower, 18–38(–45) mm in fruit; brush whitish, 5–12(– 24) mm; phyllaries 20–24, outer long-spatulate, with a distinctly ciliate, mucronate, brown- spotted limb; median oblanceolate with blunt, ciliate shoulders, apex ± spinose; inner linear-lanceolate, ± acuminate, lightly fused to about ⅓, fimbriate; all phyllaries whitish dorsally, often with a greenish submarginal vitta below, with or without blue pigmentation, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corollas 18–25 mm, blue to whitish, tube minutely papillose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds Pappus
Pappus 1.5–2 mm, dense, brownish to off-white, completely overtopped by hairs at top of achene.
Rocky places on limestone hills, and silt at the base of such a hill; alt. 800–1100 m;
flowering Jul.-Oct.
Only in the northernmost mountain region of Iraq, not far from the Turkish frontier.

Compositae, C. D. Adams. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
An erect branched herb up to 5 ft. high
Morphology Leaves
Pinnatifid spiny leaves
Morphology General Indumentum
Stems tomentose, glabrescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Florets white and involucral bracts green in spherical spiny heads up to 4 in. across
A weed of waste ground in dry open country.

Extinction risk predictions for the world's flowering plants to support their conservation (2024). Bachman, S.P., Brown, M.J.M., Leão, T.C.C., Lughadha, E.N., Walker, B.E.

Predicted extinction risk: not threatened. Confidence: confident


  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

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  • Flora of Iraq

    • Ghazanfar, S. A., Edmondson, J. R. (Eds). (2013-2019). Flora of Iraq, Volumes 5.1, 5.2 and 6.0. Kew Publishing
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

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