Prestoea ensiformis (Ruiz & Pav.) H.E.Moore

First published in Gentes Herbarum 9: 286 (1963)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Costa Rica to Central Peru. It is a tree and grows primarily in the wet tropical biome. It is has environmental uses and for fuel and food.

Descriptions

Distribution
Costa Rica to Ecuador W of the Andes, and in S Ecuador to Peru E of the Andes, usually at elevations below 1500 m. Costa Rica (Alajuela, Puntarenas), Panama (Chiriquí, Coclé, Colón, Panamá, San Blas, Veraguas), western Andean slopes of Colombia (Chocó, Nariño, Risaralda, Valle) and Ecuador (El Oro, Esmeraldas, Los Rios, Morona-Santiago, Pastaza, Zamora-Chinchipc), and eastern Andean slopes of Peru (Cusco, Húanuco); rain forest on steep slopes at 100-1300 m, occasionally reaching 1800 m. Like other Andean palms, this species crosses over from western Andean slopes in Colombia and Ecuador to eastern slopes in Peru.
Vernacular
Colombia: rabihorcao; Ecuador: chontilla, palma jibara; Panama: Puerto Rico; Peru: cuyol, palmita.
General Description
Understorey or subcanopy palm. Stem solitary, to 10 m tall, and 8-12 cm in diameter, distally with some persisting, black leaf sheaths. Leaves with petiole 50-100 cm long; blade 150-250 cm long; pinnae 40-60 on each side, the central ones 50-80 cm long and 3-5 cm wide, gradually tapering at apex into a short point. Inflorescence with peduncle 30-100 cm long; rachis 30-80 cm long; branches 20-60, 45-75 cm long, and 2-3 mm in diameter. Fruits black, globose, 7-10 mm in diameter. Seedling leaves bifid. Stems cespitose or solitary, erect, 2.5-9 m tall, 3-13 cm diam., brown or gray, often covered with persistent leaf bases, with reddish roots visible at base. Leaves 5-14, erect or arching, pinnate or rarely irregularly pinnate or simple; sheath closed for ca. ½ its length, rarely forming a crownshaft, persistent on the stem, 0.3-1 m long including a short, blunt, fibrous ligule less than 1 cm long, often reddish, fibrous at the margins distally, densely to moderately covered abaxially with appressed, white or brown peltate-lacerate scales, glabrescent, leaving punctations; petiole 0.15-1.1 m long, with scales like those of sheath, or sometimes glabrous abaxially, glabrescent; rachis 0.4-2.3 m long, with scales like those of sheath, glabrescent; pinnae 36-49 per side, regularly arranged and spreading horizontally in the same plane, subopposite to alternate, linear-lanceolate, long acuminate, with a prominent midvein and several lateral veins, with midvein essentially glabrous abaxially or with a few small ramenta, with punctations abaxially; basal pinna 36-55 x 0.5-1 cm; middle pinnae 50-82 x 3-5 cm; apical pinna 22-44 x 1.3-4.5 cm, or rarely the leaves simple or almost simple, then 1-l.l m long, 30-35 cm wide, with 1-4 separate pinnae distally and with 14-15 prominent veins each side and deeply bifid apically. Inflorescences infrafoliar or interfoliar (usually in the axils of old pcrsistent leaf sheaths), erect or arching or horizontal, straight or curved in bud; peduncle 27-93 cm long, 1-2 cm diam., terete, densely covered with brown tomentum, glabrescent; prophyll 13-60 cm long, 4-5 cm diam., reddish, sparsely covered with whitish brown scales; peduncular bract 0.7-2.2 m long including a 2-4(-8) cm long umbo, inserted either near prophyll or halfway up the peduncle, densely covered abaxially with brown tomentum persistent; rachis 0.2-1.4 m long, white at anthesis, with similar tomentum to that of peduncle; rachillae (13-)18-60, 35-72 cm long distally, 21-45 cm long proximally, 1-2 mm diam. at anthesis, 2-3 mm diam. in fruit, swollen at base, with loose to sometimes dense clusters of brownish, rarely whitish, flexuous, flattened, deciduous hairs to 0.5 mm long, occasionally almost glabrous or with crustose hairs, glabrescent; flowers in triads proximally, paired or solitary staminate distally, superficial on the rachillae; triad bracteole short, apiculate; first flower bracteole obscure, second and third flower bracteoles ± equal, apiculate, 0.3 mm long; staminate flowers 4-7 mm long, sessile; sepals deltate, 1.5 mm long, gibbous, yellowish brown and lighter-colored than the petals when dry; petals ovate-lanceolate, 3.5-5 mm long; stamens arranged round a very short receptacle; filaments to 2 mm long, linear, flattened; anthers to 2.5 mm long; pistillode 1-1.5 mm long, deeply trifid at the apex; pistillate flowers 2-3.5 mm long; sepals very widely ovate, 2-2.5 mm long, fleshy, minutely ciliate; petals widely ovate, 2.5-3.5 mm long; staminodes minute or absent or well developed, digitate. Fruits globose, 0.7-1 cm diam., with lateral stigmatic remains; epicarp purpleblack, minutely tuberculate; seeds globose; endosperm deeply ruminate; eophyll bifid.
[PW]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
hoja de aguacero, lindona, rabihorcao
[UNAL]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 450 - 1750 m.; Andes, Pacífico.
Morphology General Habit
Arbusto, palma cespitosa
Conservation
Casi Amenazada
[CPLC]

Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean, Pacific. Elevation range: 450–1750 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Boyacá, Caldas, Cauca, Chocó, Nariño, Risaralda, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Shrub, Caespitose palm.
Conservation
National Red List of Colombia (2021): NT.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, shrubland, artificial - terrestrial.
[UPFC]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Conservation
Near threatened.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.
Ecology
Alt. 450 - 1750 m.
[UPB]

Uses

Use
The palm hearts are eaten in Ecuador.
[PW]

Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
[UPFC]

Use Environmental
Environmental uses (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Food
Food (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Fuel
Fuels (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
[UPB]

Sources

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    • ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    • https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Palmweb - Palms of the World Online

    • Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    • Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0