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This species is accepted, and its native range is E. Bolivia to Brazil, Tropical Africa, W. Yemen.
Vernonia amygdalina

[FZ]

Compositae, G. V. Pope. Flora Zambesiaca 6:1. 1992

Morphology General Habit
A many-stemmed shrub or small tree up to c. 8 m. tall.
Morphology Stem
Stems slender with a pale-brown closely longitudinally furrowed bark; branches and twigs greyish pubescent, the indumentum of 1-armed T-shaped hairs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with petioles 0.2–1.5 cm. long; lamina mostly 7–14 x 3–4 cm., sometimes smaller or occasionally up to c. 28 x 9 cm., c. 4 times as long as wide, narrowly elliptic or lanceolate-elliptic, apex tapering acute to sub-acuminate, base ± narrowly cuneate, margins subentire to serrulate, upper surface puberulous to glabrescent, lower surface paler and ± tomentose or glabrescent with venation ± reticulate and somewhat raised.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Capitulum
Capitula very numerous in terminal, divaricately branching, rounded panicles; stalks 3–12 mm. long, stiff, tomentellous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Involucre
Involucres 3–5 mm. long and 3–6 mm. wide, mostly wider than long, subglobose becoming hemispheric or broadly campanulate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Phyllaries
Phyllaries many, tightly appressed-imbricate at first, thinly cartilaginous, sometimes puberulous and glandular at the apex and ciliate on the margins, otherwise glabrous; the outer phyllaries from c. 1 mm. long, ovate-elliptic; the middle phyllaries broadly oblong-elliptic, rounded to obtuse at the apex; the innermost up to c. 5 mm. long, narrowly oblong-oblanceolate with a rounded to acute apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Florets 10–24 per capitulum; corollas exserted above the involucre, whitish, sweet-scented, 6–9 mm. long, narrowly funnel-shaped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Achenes 2.2–3.5 mm. long, narrowly turbinate to subcylindric tapering to the base, c. 10-ribbed, setulose particularly on the ribs, glandular; pappus exserted beyond the involucre, outer pappus of very caducous linear scale-like setae 1–3 mm. long, inner pappus of more persistent sordid to brownish, rigid, slender setae widening and somewhat flattened towards the apex 4–6 mm. long and barbellate.

[FWTA]

Compositae, C. D. Adams. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
A shrub or small tree 6-15 ft. high with striate, pubescent branchlets becoming glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Florets sweet-scented, white, in heads 1/4 in. broad
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pappus buff or reddish
Ecology
Common and often planted.

[FTEA]

Compositae, H. Beentje, C. Jeffrey & D.J.N. Hind. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree 0.5-10 m tall, much-branched, spreading, coppice-growing, trunk up to 40 cm in diameter; bark grey or brown, smooth, becoming longitudinally fissured; slash green, becoming black on exposure; stems pubescent with asymmetrical T-shaped hairs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate, elliptic, lanceolate or (broadly) ovate, 4-15(-28) cm long, 1.2-4(-15) cm wide, base cuneate or rounded, margins minutely remotely denticulate to coarsely serrate, apex shortly acuminate, apiculate, rather thinly pubescent and glabrescent except for the midrib above, finely crispate-pubescent especially on the veins and often ± glabrescent beneath; petiole 0.2-4 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Capitulum
Capitula several to numerous in terminal compound corymbiform cymes; stalks of individual capitula 3-12 mm long, pubescent; involucre cylindrical, ovoid-cylindrical or broadly ellipsoid, 3-5 mm long; phyllaries 3-7-seriate, appressed, broadly ovate to lanceolate, 1-4.4 mm long, obtuse to rounded, apiculate, pale green, slightly darker near the apex, finely white-ciliate on the margins.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Florets 10-24 per capitulum, sweetly scented, strongly exserted; corolla white, occasionally tinged pale lilac, mauve or pink, 5.3-8.2 mm long, lobes erect, connivent, glabrous, 2-3 mm long, with capitate glands.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Achenes 1.7-3.5 mm long, 10-ribbed, thinly pubescent and usually glandular; outer pappus of linear scales, often scant, caducous, 0.2-1.3 mm long, inner of cream or brownish bristles 4-7 mm long, distally flattened.
Figures
Fig. 40.
Habitat
River, lake, waterhole and forest margins, woodland, wooded grassland, grassland and secondary bushland; 300-1950 m
Distribution
tropical Africa K2 K3 K4/K7 K5 K6 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 U1

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Bitter leaf, River vernonia, Tree vernonia

Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Nov 1, 2010 Etuge, M. [5303], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000673944
Feb 1, 2008 Simon, G. [724], Tanzania Vernonia amygdalina K000438256
Apr 1, 2002 Silva, N.T. [58345], Bahia Vernonia amygdalina K000068841
Apr 1, 2002 Belém, R.P. [1760], Bahia Vernonia amygdalina K000068842
Mar 1, 2002 Endoh, M.T. [s.n.], Brazil Vernonia amygdalina K001066077
Mar 1, 2002 Capellari, L. Jr. [s.n.], Brazil Vernonia amygdalina K001066079
Mar 1, 2002 Catharino, E.L.M. [862], Brazil Vernonia amygdalina K001066078
Oct 1, 2001 Dutra, E. de A. [44], Bahia Vernonia amygdalina K000068827
Oct 1, 2001 Discentes da UEFS [s.n.], Bahia Vernonia amygdalina K000068828
Oct 1, 2001 Glaziou, A.F.M. [3700], Brazil Vernonia amygdalina K001066074
Oct 1, 2001 Coutinho, P.P. [s.n.], Brazil Vernonia amygdalina K001066075
Oct 1, 2001 Vieira, R.F. [566], Brazil Vernonia amygdalina K001066080
Jul 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [1534], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000108743
Jan 1, 1989 Westphal [9466], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051542
Jan 1, 1989 Westphal [10066], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051543
Mar 1, 1985 Pole-Evans, I.B. [4129], Botswana Vernonia amygdalina K000489271
Mar 1, 1985 Lugard, E.J. [249], Botswana Vernonia amygdalina K000489267
Mar 1, 1985 Erens, J. [305], Botswana Vernonia amygdalina K000489270
Apr 1, 1976 Letouzey, R. [14607], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051538
Jan 1, 1959 Morton, J.K. [933], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051569
Ash [225], Ethiopia Vernonia amygdalina 34096.000
Ash [1831], Ethiopia Vernonia amygdalina 35540.000
Ash [1537], Ethiopia Vernonia amygdalina 35782.000
Badra, T., Nigeria Vernonia amygdalina 51380.000
Vogel [257], Nigeria Vernonia amygdalina K000272840
Vogel [257], Nigeria Vernonia amygdalina K000272841
Kotschy [479], Ethiopia Vernonia amygdalina K000272913 isotype
Kotschy [479], Ethiopia Vernonia amygdalina K000272914
Schimper [31], Ethiopia Vernonia amygdalina K000272915 isolectotype
Story, R. [4771], Botswana Vernonia amygdalina K000489268
Dunlap [125], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051564
Maitland, T.D. [316], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051565
Hepper, F.N. [1858], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051568
Thompson, S.A. [1826], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051541
Smith, P.A. [226], Botswana Vernonia amygdalina K000489269
Chevalier [44], Mali Vernonia amygdalina K000391761
Smith, P.A. [138], Botswana Vernonia amygdalina K000489272
Maitland, T.D. [53], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051566
Maitland, T.D. [1165], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051567
Pereira, B.A.S. [293], Brazil Vernonia amygdalina K001066076
Brunt, M.A. [143], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051561
Brunt, M.A. [144], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051560
Gossweiler, J. [1162], Angola Vernonia amygdalina K001307292
Brunt, M.A. [23], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051562

First published in Repert. Bot. Syst. 2: 948 (1843)

Accepted by

  • Roskov Y. & al. (eds.) (2018). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Beentje, H.J. (2021). Flore du Gabon 56: 1-148. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/